World War One

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences as the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro- Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All of the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Romanian Army in World War One 1916-1918

The Army of Rumania in World War One 1916-1918. Uniforms, strength and organization of the Romanian Army. On August 17, 1916 Rumania settled the military alliance with the Allies which had been forced upon her, and after that instantly started … learn more

German Military Passport

German military passport from the Kaiser’s period. Complete German Military Passport from the Kaiser’s period of the Great-grandfather of the author. Military passport of the great-grandfather of the author: carpenter Heinrich Button (mother’s side), born on 30 March 1978 in … learn more

Battle of the Somme

The battle of the machine-guns on the Somme from July 1 to November 18, 1916. Not any battle in World War One had been as dominated by the machine-gun as the Allied 1916 summer offen­sive, the Battle of the Somme. … learn more

Brusilov Offensive

The Russian Brusilov Offensive in summer 1916: History, preparation and conduct of the most successful Russian offensive in World War One, which probably averted an Allied defeat. Prehistory to Brusilov offensive Following its awesome retreat in fall season 1915 the … learn more

Cruiser Aurora

Russian Pallada class protected cruisers (Pallada, Diana, Aurora). History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Pallada class (Pallada, Diana, Aurora) Type: Protected cruisers. History: The Pallada class were three-funnelled cruisers having a fore­castle deck so far as the mainmast. The … learn more

Armenian Genocide

3d model of Italian heavy cruiser Pola of Zara class.

The genocide of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1916. Among the terrible atrocities of the war also includes an incident that never employed the international public too much – for one thing because always supplanted by … learn more

Battle of Jutland

The largest naval battle in history, which took place at Jutland on May 31 to June 1, 1916 Following 2 years of shadow boxing, the spring of 1916 spotted both largest fleets on the planet on the water and steaming … learn more

Mortier de 370 Filloux

French 370-mm heavy mortar rains high explosives

French heavy 370-mm howitzer Mortier de 370 Filloux. History, development, service, specification, and pictures. History The Mortier de 370 Filloux had its ori­gins in a specification regarding a coastal artil­lery gun able to produce plunging shells in order to cut … learn more

Easter week 1916 in Ireland

Easter Rising – Easter week 1916 in Ireland. Part III of Easter Rising. Here to Part II ! Irish rebellion on Easter Monday The heart and soul of the Irish strategy was to capture specific important spots in Dublin, and … learn more

Sinn Fein – David and Goliath

Resources of David and Goliath for the Easter Rising in Ireland 1916. Part II of Easter Rising. Here to Part I ! Resources of David vs Goliath And the second para-military force had been James Connolly’s Irish Citizen Army. Connolly … learn more

Easter Rising

The Easter Rising in Ireland on Easter Monday 24 April, 1916. Causes of the Easter Rising The conditions that resulted in the Irish Easter Rising of 1916 are of a powerful com­plexity, historical, cultural, governmental, and maybe most importantly mental. … learn more

F.E.2

British two-seater fighter Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and F.E.2d Type: two-seater fighter (later night-bomber). History: Had it been achievable to have the F.E.2b to come sooner into action, it … learn more