us flagBAR – Browning Automatic Rifle, US light machine gun or assault rifle.
History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model.

Browning Automatic Rifle BAR M1918A2

Browning Automatic Rifle BAR M1918A2

Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR)
Type: heavy automatic rifle or light machine gun.

Browning M1918 in World War One

In February 1917, shortly before the USA entered World War One, Browning presented two automatic weapons designs to Congress in Washington. One of them was the heavy machine gun Browning M1917, while the other gun is actually a hermaphrodite.

This Browning Automatic Rifle M1918 or short BAR did not fit into any category. The rifle was the size of an ordinary repeating rifle, but with twice the weight and made continuous fire possible by a gas pressure mechanism, which moved the locked breech.

In many other armed forces, the weapon later served as a light machine gun, but in the US Army it was initially used exclusively as an automatic rifle and was often used in a similar way to later assault rifles.
It was still a relatively light and movable weapon, which could fire single shots or full-auto and was used by one man.

Original BAR M1918

Original BAR M1918

At the beginning of 1918 the BAR was produced in several factories, but since Colt held the Browning patents at that time, they first completed the technical drawings and models for the other manufacturers. So it took until September 1918 until the BAR could finally be used.
But then the weapon made such a great impression on the American soldiers that the BAR was still used in the Korean War and was used by the US Army until 1957.

Why the American soldiers were so fascinated by the BAR is actually difficult to explain. The first BAR, which were used in World War One, could only be fired from the hands, because they did not even have the bipod of a light machine gun.
In addition, the box magazine contained only 20 rounds of ammunition, so that during automatic firing the length of the possible burst was very limited and much too short for most infantry fights. Also, a hot barrel could not be replaced quickly and easily.
As a light machine gun the BAR was actually too light, while as an automatic rifle it was too big and too heavy.

But during World War One, the American soldiers were glad to have received the BAR and no longer had to fight with the terrible Chauchat machine gun.
Apart from the Springfield rifle, the BAR was pretty much the only real American weapon they had received and undoubtedly wanted to emphasize the quality of their national firearms.

The BAR was indeed an impressive looking weapon, was excellently crafted and had an excellent wooden stock. In addition, the weapon could withstand heavy blows and a hard treatment well.
For maintenance and repairs, the BAR could be quickly and easily dismantled into its 70 parts and reassembled just as easily.

BAR M1918 with bipod

BAR M1918 with bipod (M1918A1).

For combat missions, the US Army had some combat exercises carried out for the BAR. A drill did not last long, in which attacking soldiers should fire a shot with every left foot step forward.
In fact, practical drills only emerged after the few months of war with American involvement had been analyzed after the November 1918 ceasefire.

So now a bipod and shoulder strap were mounted to carry the BAR and it became the BAR M1918A1 in 1937. Instead of being a kind of assault weapon, as it was used in the trench warfare of World War One, the BAR supported the infantry group by covering fire during combat.

A total of about 85,000 copies of the 1918 model were delivered and the original M1918 stock was sent to Britain in 1940 to equip the Home Guard and other secondary units.

Browning M1918A2 in WW2

After the outbreak of World War II the light Browning machine gun was changed in 1940 to the BAR M1918A2 and in this version large quantities were ordered by the US Army. In this model the bipod was revised and the firing stability was improved.

US soldier fires his BAR

An US soldier fires his BAR in his hands holding off.

Besides the M1918A1, the new M1918A2 was the main light support weapon for an infantry platoon of the US Army and the US Marines in World War II. However, the weapon was still fired from case to case as a kind of ‘assault rifle’ holding in the hands.

The new weapon was manufactured by the New England Arms Company and the International Business Machines in a quantity of 208,380 units.
This made the BAR M1918A2 the most common light machine gun in the US armed forces and remained in use in this form until the early 1960s.

Nevertheless, there was still a lack of the too small magazine with only 20 rounds when used as a light machine gun. It was still considered a hermaphrodite by military theorists, while it was generally popular with field troops.

During the Second World War, the M1918A2 was also used by many Allied forces, including the National Chinese Army.
It is still in use in Third World countries today and a modernized version for police missions is available under the name ‘Monitor’.

Browning M1918 in Belgium and Poland

Belgian model 1930

Belgian model 1930

The inventor of the Browning machine gun, John M Browning, worked for the Belgian Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre in Herstal for years after World War One, where he died in 1928. Since 1920 his BAR was produced here under licence and small quantities were also delivered to the armed forces of Sweden, some Baltic states and Central and South America, including Honduras. Many of these eventually ended up with the National Chinese Army.
The Belgian armed forces introduced the slightly improved and precisely processed original 7.65mm caliber weapon as a 1930 model and used it in 1940. During the German occupation, the FN weapon factory continued to build the machine gun for the Wehrmacht.

Polish model 1928.

Polish model 1928.

The Polish army introduced the BAR modified in caliber 7.92mm as model 1926 and the Belgian company delivered about 10,000 pieces until 1930. Subsequently, the Warsaw factory began to build its own model in 1928, which was based on a Belgian license.
This light machine gun was perfected by 1939 and around 11,000 weapons were available to the Polish armed forces at the outbreak of World War II.
Before the war, 1,880 units were exported by the Poles and specimens captured in Poland were used by both the Red Army and the Germans during the Second World War.

Animated 3D model BAR

Specifications BAR

Specification M1918 M1918A2 Model 1930 (Belgium) Model 1928 (Poland)
Type automatic rifle light machine gun = =
Caliber 0.30in (7.62 mm) = 7.65mm 7.92mm
Length 47in (119.40cm) 47.75in (121.40cm) 45in (114.50cm) 43.7in (111cm)
Weight 16lb (7.26kg) 22lb (8.80kg) 21.1lb (9.57kg) 21lb (9.50kg)
Barrel 24in (61cm) = ? ?
Feed system 20-round detachable box magazine = = =
System of operation Gas; lifting bolt = = =
Muzzle velocity 2,800 ft/sec (853m/sec) = ? ?
Cyclic rate of fire 550 rpm 300-450 or 500-600 rpm ? ?
Fire mode Full-auto and single = ? ?
Service statistics
Figures M1918 M1918A2 Model 1930 (Belgium) Model 1928 (Poland)
Manufactures Colt, Winchester, Marlin New England Arms Company, International Business Machines FN (Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre) in Herstal Armaments factory Warzaw
Production delivery 1918 1940 1930 1928
Service delivery September 1918 1940-41 since 1930 since 1928
Production figure 85,000 208,380 ? (+ 10,000 for Poland) 11,000
Price per unit unknown

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B-25 Mitchell

us flagUS medium and attack bomber North American B-25 Mitchell.
History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model.

B-25J Mitchell bomber

This B-25J Mitchell bomber was one of 870 various sub-types supplied under Lend-Lease to Russia in 1941-44.

North American B-25 Mitchell.
Type: Medium bomber and attack aircraft.


Named in honour of the fearless US Army Air Corps officer who was court-martialled in 1924 for his tiresome (to officialdom) belief in air power, the B-25 – designed by a company with no previous experience of twins, of bombers or of high performance warplanes – was made in larger quantities than any other American twin-engined combat aircraft and has often been described as the best aircraft in its class in WW2 .

Led by Lee Atwood and Ray Rice, the design team first created the Twin Wasp-powered NA-40, but had to start again and build a sleeker and more powerful machine to meet revised Army specifications demanding twice the bomb load (2,400 lb = 1,089 kg).

The Army ordered 184 off the drawing board, the first 24 being B-25’s and the rest B-25A with armour and self-sealing tanks. The defensive armament was a 0.5in machine gun manually aimed in the cramped tail and single 0.3in machine gun manually aimed from waist windows and the nose; bomb load was 3,000 lb (1,361 kg).

The B-25B had twin 0 5in MG in an electrically driven dorsal turret and a retractable ventral turret, the tail gun being removed. On 18 April 1942 16 B-25Bs led by Lt-Col Jimmy Doolittle made the daring and morale-raising raid on Tokyo, having made free take-offs at gross weight from the carrier Hornet 800 miles distant.

Extra fuel, external bomb racks and other additions led to the B-25C, supplied to the RAF, China and Russia, and as PBJ-1C to the US Navy. The B-25D was similar but at the new plant at Kansas City.

In 1942 came the B-25G, with solid nose fitted with a 75mm M-4 gun, loaded manually with 21 rounds. At first two 0.5in MGs were also fixed in the nose, for flak suppression and sighting, but in July 1943 tests against Japanese ships showed that more was needed and the answer was four 0.5in ‘package guns’ on the sides of the nose.

Next came the B-25H with the fearsome armament of a 75mm, 14 0.5in guns (eight firing ahead, two in waist bulges and four in dorsal and tail turrets) and a 2,000 lb (907 kg) torpedo or 3,200 lb (1,451 kg) of bombs.

Biggest production of all was of the B-25J Mitchell, with glazed nose, normal bomb load of 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) and eleven 0.5in guns supplied with 5,000 rounds. The corresponding attack version had a solid nose with seven additional 0.5in guns. Total J output was 4,318, and the last delivery in August 1945 brought total output to 9,816.

The F-10 was an unarmed multi-camera reconnaissance version, and the CB-25 was a post-war transport model. The wartime AT-24 trainers were redesignated TB-25 and, after 1947, supplemented by more than 900 bombers rebuilt as the TB-25J, K, Land M. Many ended their days as research hacks or target tugs and one carried the cameras for the early Cinerama films.

Wartime users: Australia, Brazil, China, Free-French, Co-Belligerent Italy, Mexico, Netherlands (1944), USSR, UK (RAF, RN), US (AAC/AAF, Navy).

Animated 3D model B-25J Mitchell attack bomber

Specifications North American B-25J Mitchell

North American B-25J Mitchell Specification
Type attack bomber
Power plant Two Wright R-2600-92 Cyclone 14-cylinder radial, air-cooled, 1700 hp each (emergency rating 1,850 hp)
Accommodation 5
Wing span 67 ft 7 in
Length overall 52 ft 11 in
Height overall 16 ft 9 in
Wing area ?
Weight empty 21,100 lb
Weight maximum loaded 35,000 lb (normal), 41,800 lb (overload)
Max wing loading ?
Max power loading ?
Max level speed 272 mph
at height 13,000 ft
Cruising speed ?
at height ?
initial climb c. 1,100 ft/min
Time ?
to height ?
Service ceiling 24,200 ft
Range 1,350 miles
Range with maximum bomb load ?
Range maximum ?
Combat radius ?
North American B-25J Mitchell attack version Specification
Machine guns total 18 x 0.5in guns (800 rpm, velocity 2,180 ft.sec, bullet wt. 1.71 Oz., range 7,200 yds)
in nose Eight 12,7-mm (0.5-in) guns (only in attack version)
defense Four 12,7-mm guns in under-cockpit packages (each two for pilot and co-pilot), two 12,7-mm guns in electrically driven dorsal turret, two 12,7-mm guns in retractable ventral turret, two 12,7-mm gun in waist bulges
bomb load 3,000 lb (1,360 kg) of bombs (4,000 lb in B-25J bomber version)
Service statistics
North American B-25 Mitchell " data
First flight (NA-40 prototype) January 1939
First production (B-25) 19 August 1940
First production (B-25G) August 1942
Service delivery (B-25H) February 1944
Operational delivery (B-25J-1) August 1943 (B-25J in wide use from early 1944)
Operational delivery (B-25J-1 attack bomber) October 1943
Final delivery August 1945
Unit cost ?
Total production figure (all versions) 9,816 (1,000 B-25H, 4,318 B-25J including 800 attack bombers)
Lend-Lease to Russia (all) 862 (+8 lost en route)
Number of US Sorties, Europe 42-45 (all) 63,177
Bomb Tonnage US, Europe 42-45 (all) 84,980
US Lost in Combat, Europe 42-45 (all) 380
Enemies claimed destroyed by US, Europe 42-45 (all) 193

Diary October 20, 1943

'Ranger' Mosquito night intruders

‘Ranger’ Mosquito night intruders with the latest avionics were every night over Germany.

WW2 War Diary for Wednesday, October 20, 1943:

Air War

Germany: 285 RAF and RCAF Lancaster bombers raid Leipzig in severe weather (1,085t bombs dropped). Mosquitoe bombers attack Berlin. 17 planes lost.
Britain: Attempted night raids on London and Hull fail abysmally.

Eastern Front

Southern Sector: 4 Russian ‘Fronts’ (army groups), previously known as ‘Voronezh’, ‘Steppe’, ‘South-West’ and ‘South’, redesignated ‘1st’ to ‘4th’ Ukrainian Fronts (UFs).

Sea War

Caribbean: U-boat U-516 sinks 6 ships and escapes despite week-long hunt by Allied forces.
PacificOperation Ro: 6 Japanese carriers ferry 173 planes from Truk to Rabaul in readiness for planned offensive in Solomons.


Britain and USA agree to establish investigative War Crimes Commission.

Diary October 20, 1918

Corporal of a German infantry regiment

Corporal of a German infantry regiment in Serbia in October 1918.

World War One Diary for Sunday, October 20, 1918:

Southern Fronts

Serbia Battle of Paracin (­until October 23): Serb First Army attacks strong counter-attacking German rearguards in Upper Morava valley. Serb Second Army relieves French at Pristina before advance to Western Morava valley via Kossovo.

Western Front

Flanders: ALL BELGIAN COAST IN ALLIED HANDS, Belgian Northern wing on Dutch frontier.
Selle ­- Second phase (until October 22): British storm Hermann line and extend advance to north (until October 25); Third Army (7 divisions) crosses Selle (4 tanks in support) and captures Solesmes. US 27th and 30th Divisions withdrawn to rest (11,500 casualties since September 27).
Lorraine: Foch directs Petain to prepare to launch offensive as latter requested (October 14).
Meuse and Argonne: US losses now 54,158 men.

Eastern Front

Urals: Heavily-mauled Czech 4th Regiment mutinies, 1st Regiment soon follows.

Sea War

Germany: ALL U-BOATS ORDERED HOME by Scheer (17 boats recalled), coastal submarine UB-86 last outward bound boat to cross Northern Barrage for Irish Sea.
Channel: Royal Navy monitor M21 strikes 2 mines off Ostend, towed back to Dover but sinks.


Germany: Third note accepts US conditions (of October 14) including renunciation of U-boat war (Washington receives on October 22).


Denmark: Government proposes Schleswig-Holstein plebiscite.

Home Fronts

Turkey: General amnesty to exiles and refugees; part of Izzet Pasha Government programme read to Assembly (October 19). Press meet and agree to act together (October 21).

Horten Ho IX

German jet bomber Horten Ho IX (Gotha Go 229)
History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures, video and 3D model.

Gotha Go 229 V2 at Oranienburg

The tailless Gotha Go 229 V2 at Oranienburg, probably in February 1945.

Gotha Go 229, Horten Ho IX.
Type: German jet bomber, jet fighter-bomber and jet fighter.


The Horton Ho IX twin-jet tailless fighter-bomber, from which 2 prototypes have been flown prior to the end of the WW2, had been an incredibly superior model, which takes advantage of extensive knowledge acquired by the brothers Reimar and Walter Horten within the design flying-wing planes, of which the bulk were gliders.

Beginning in 1942 developed by Sonderkommando 9, the initial model Ho IX VI was discovered to be incapable of provide the 2 planned BMW 109-003-1 turbojets because of an unexpected rise in power plant size, and it was consequently flown as a glider at Oranienburg through the summer of 1944. The newly designed Ho IX V2 was equipped with 2 Junkers 109-004B-1 turbojets and flown properly at Oranienburg, showing speeds as high as 960 km/h (597 mph) prior to being demolished while making a single-engine landing.

This kind of promise motivated the RLM to instruct Gothaer Waggonfabrik to assume development of the design, and a new third prototype, the Go 229 V3, was designed with 1,000-kg (2,205-lb) thrust Jumo 109-004C turbojets, but was held back from flying by the end of the war in May 1945.

photomontage Gotha Go 229

A photomontage with a model of the Gotha Go 229.

Work had also began on the two-seat Go 229 V4 and Go 229 V5 night-fighter prototypes, the Go 229 V6 armament test prototype, and the Go 229 V7 two-seat trainer. No progress had been done on twenty pre-production Go 229A-0 fighter-bombers, on order by the end of World War 2, which were developed to be armed with 2 x 1,000-kg (2,205-lb) bombs and 4 x 30-mm MK 103 cannon.

Animated 3D model Horten Ho 229, Gotha Go

Specifications Horten Ho IX, Gotha Go 229

Horten Ho IX, Gotha Go 229 Specification
Type jet bomber, fighter-bomber, jet fighter
Engine two Junkers Jumo 004B with 2 x 1984 lb
Accomidation 1
Wing span 54 ft 11.5 in
Length overall 30 ft 2.2 in
Weight loaded 18,739 lb
Max level speed 540 mph
Horten Ho IX, Gotha Go 229 Specification
in front direction 2 x 3-cm machine guns
external load 2,208 lb bombs
Service statistics
Horten Ho IX, Gotha Go 229 data
First flight January 1945

Video from the action with Horten Ho IX in video games

Mission with Horten Ho IX in a ‘Realistic Ground Battle’ of the free2play game War Thunder:

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Diary October 19, 1943

 Beaufighter firing rockets

The Beaufighter is a deadly aircraft for enemy ships. This Mk VIC is firing rockets on it’s target.

WW2 War Diary for Tuesday, October 19, 1943:

Air War

Mediterranean: B-25 Mitchell bombers and Beaufighters attack convoys north of Crete (October 19 and 20). German prison ship Sinfra sunk (566 men rescued).


Britain: London Protocol signed; Britain, USA and Canada to step up supplies to Soviets.
USSR – SECOND MOSCOW CONFERENCE (October 19-November 1): war criminals to be punished. Declaration on post-war status of Italy, Austria and China.