Chinese Air Force, Fleet, Communist Forces

Pilots of the Chinese Flying Tigers are running to their planes.

Chinese Air Force During the 1930s, the Chinese Air Force was composed largely of foreign volunteers, at first Americans but later Italians. By 1937 the strength of the Air Force stood at 500 aircraft, but few of these were serviceable,… learn more

Bulgarian Armed Forces

Tsar Boris III from Bulgaria

Bulgarian Army Throughout World War II Tsarist Bulgaria was only officially at war with England and America. Her alliance with Germany was due in part to their common experiences during World War I, the hope of territorial gains, and her… learn more

Belgian Armed Forces

Belgian soldiers take a rest by the roadside

Belgian Army In 1914 neutral Belgium had been suddenly attacked by the German Army and had experienced four years of trench warfare. After the German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936 the country was again jolted into awareness of impending… learn more

Slovak Armed Forces

Soldiers of the Slovak Mobile Division on the Eastern Front

Slovak Army In March 1939 Hitler summoned the leaders of the Slovak populist party to Berlin and told them that unless they broke away from Czechoslovakia, he would allow the Hungarians to invade their country. Slovakia declared itself independent on… learn more


CinC Luftwaffe Hermann Göring

German Air Force of World War 2 Part I: The victorious years to 1942. Since this page is involved mainly with the Luftwaffe around 1939-1945, the assumption is that the visitor features a fundamental knowledge with Luftwaffe background just before… learn more

Luftwaffe in the second half of war

Me 110 night fighters returned from a misison

German Air Force of World War 2 Part II: The German Air Force in the second half of the war. here to Part I Luftwaffe Jeschonnek’s successor, General Günther Korten, began with the correct concept. He reorganised the Luftwaffe allowing… learn more

Hungarian Armed Forces 1942

Troops of the 2nd Hungarian Army

Strength and Organization of the Army and Air Force of Hungary. Hungarian Army In spring 1942 Germany’s need for more manpower on the Eastern Front demanded a maximum effort and the Hungarians dispatched to the front the 2nd Hungarian Army… learn more

Italian Armed Forces 1942

Italian infantry in the Western Desert i

Strength and Organisation of the Italian Army and Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) in 1942. Italian Army All Italian citizens from the ages of 18 to 54 years were liable for military service. The first stage was that of conscript service… learn more

Romanian Armed Forces 1942

Romanian infantry in the battle of Sevastopol

Strength and Organization of the Army, Air Force and Navy of Romania in 1942. Romanian Army By the autumn of 1941 the Romanians had advanced – mostly on foot or on horseback – across the Ukraine and Bessarabia to the… learn more

Greek Armed Forces

Tea and bread for Greek soldiers at Canea

Strength and organization of the Armed Forces of Greece 1940-41. From 1938 until the German invasion, Greece was a constitutional monarchy under King George II, but the actual power was in the hands of her right-wing dictator-President General Metaxas. The… learn more

Pilot Training mid- and late-war

Arado 96 advanced trainers

Pilot Training of the German Air Force from 1942 to 1945 (Part II). Decline of the Luftwaffe Pilot Training The Battle of Britain had been the first major setback for the Luftwaffe, but in the main the losses in trained… learn more

Pilot Training of the Luftwaffe

Focke-Wulf Fw44C primary tandem training biplanes

Pilot Training of the German Air Force in World War 2 (Part I). Pilot Training of the Luftwaffe before 1942 The period of training given to new pilots of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) was steadily shortened during the course… learn more

Finnish Armed Forces 1941-1944

Finnish Army on march

Strength and Organization of the Army, Air Force and Navy of Finland in the Continuation War Finnish Army Although the signing of the Moscow Treaty in March 1940, which ended the Winter War, guaranteed Finland her borders with the Soviet… learn more

US Army Air Force at the beginning of WW2

First B-24 in Great Britain

Strength and Organization of the USAAF in North America, Great Britain and Mediterranean theatre US Army Air Force In the 1930s there were dramatic strides in civil and commercial aviation, and by the eve of the war the United States… learn more

Vichy France l’ Armee de l’ Armistice

Curtiss Hawks of the Vichy French Air Force

Strength and Organization of the l’ Armee de l’ Armistice of Vichy France Armed Forces of Vichy France The Franco-German Armistice of 22 June 1940 divided France into two parts. The northern and western area of the country was to… learn more

Italian Air Force and Navy

Fiat CR42 Falco

Strength and Organization of the Regia Aeronautica and Regia Navale when Italy enters Second World War in June 1940 Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) On 24 January 1923 the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) was formed as an independent… learn more

French Armed Forces 1940

French heavy tak Char B1

Strength and organization of the Army Forces and Air Force of France in May 1940 French Army On 10 May 1940 the German offensive began by outflanking the Maginot Line in an advance through the Ardennes region, a move totally… learn more

Dutch Armed Forces

Dutch mortat team in action

Strength and organization of the Army, Air Force and Navy of the Netherlands in Europe in May 1940 Dutch Army During World War One Holland’s neutrality had been respected and during the inter-war years her government saw fit to reduce… learn more

Luftwaffe and German Airborne Forces May 1940

German Paratroopers during the air landings in Holland

German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and Airborne Forces for the campaign in the West, May 1940 German Air Force For the campaign in the West the Luftwaffe deployed 3,902 aircraft (1,482 bombers and dive-bombers, 42 ground-attack planes, 1,016 fighter planes and… learn more

Finnish Armed Forces in the Winter War 1939-40

Finnish instructor for Suomi sub-machine gun

Finnish Army The Finnish army was one of the smallest in Europe and the Red Army expected little opposition. But the Soviet invasion found the Finns well prepared; and they turned to their advantage the sub-zero temperatures and deep snow… learn more