Chinese Nationalist Army

Chiang Kai-sheks's German-trained and equipped Chinese soldiers.

The seizure of Mukden on 19 September 1931 marked the beginning of overt Japanese aggression against China, and from 1937 there was open war. The disorganised Chinese forces were no match on the battlefield for the Japanese armies, but determined… learn more

Belgian Armed Forces

Belgian soldiers take a rest by the roadside

Belgian Army In 1914 neutral Belgium had been suddenly attacked by the German Army and had experienced four years of trench warfare. After the German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936 the country was again jolted into awareness of impending… learn more

Military performance

German paratroopers with a 7.5-cm PaK 40

The German military performance during World War Two. Part III of the assessment of the fighting power of the Wehrmacht in WW2. back to Part II: Wehrmacht vs US Army German Performance against the Western Allies With the development and… learn more

Performance on the Western Front

Infantry of the US XX Corps move forward

German military performance against the Western Allies in France and on the German frontier in 1944. back to Part III: Military performance in Italy 1943-44 As Rommel had forecast, the ensuing three months after the Allied invasion in Normandy on… learn more

Fleets 1939

battleship of the Nelson class

British Royal Navy, French Navy and German Kriegsmarine at the beginning of World War II in September 1939. The fleets in September 1939 with ship classes, ships under construction and deployment of the Royal Navy, French and German navies. ROYAL… learn more

Yugoslavia Armed Forces

Men of the Belgrade 'Iron Regiment' on the march

Strength and organisation of the Yugoslav Army, Air Force and Navy in 1941. Yugoslav Army The titular head of the armed forces was the King. At the end of March 1941 a group of Army officers overthrew the Regent Prince… learn more



Partisans and Chetniks – strength and organization of irregular forces in Russia and Yugoslavia. Partisans in Russia The rapid disintegration of the Red Army along the western frontiers of the Soviet Union as a result of the Axis invasion in… learn more

Performance on the Russian Front

successful knock-out

The German military performance on the Russian Front during World War II. back to Military Performance on the Western Front 1944 (Part IV) Part IV of the analysis of fighting power. Unfortunately, the HERO database is (Historical Evaluation and Research… learn more

Greek Armed Forces

Tea and bread for Greek soldiers at Canea

Strength and organization of the Armed Forces of Greece 1940-41. From 1938 until the German invasion, Greece was a constitutional monarchy under King George II, but the actual power was in the hands of her right-wing dictator-President General Metaxas. The… learn more

US Navy in late 1941

Picture taken from a Japanese pilot during the attack on Pearl Harbor

Strength, Ships and Organization as the United States enters WW2 in December 1941 In late 1941, the US Navy consisted of: 17 battleships (+15 under construction): 1 Arkansas (1912), 2 New York class (1914), 2 Nevada class (1916), 2 Pennsylvania… learn more

US Army Air Force at the beginning of WW2

First B-24 in Great Britain

Strength and Organization of the USAAF in North America, Great Britain and Mediterranean theatre US Army Air Force In the 1930s there were dramatic strides in civil and commercial aviation, and by the eve of the war the United States… learn more

US Army at the beginning of WW2

GI's are landing

Strength and Organization of the US Army in North America, Great Britain and Mediterranean theatre in 1941-42 US Army Although it is true that the United States mobilised its vast resources in a remarkably short time, American soldiers had ample… learn more

Free French Army

Free French 'L' Force

Strength and organization of Free French Army Free French Army After the fall of France, various units of French troops in the Middle East preferred to join the Allies. Their position was difficult; many Frenchmen thought them a small group… learn more

French Armed Forces 1940

French heavy tak Char B1

Strength and organization of the Army Forces and Air Force of France in May 1940 French Army On 10 May 1940 the German offensive began by outflanking the Maginot Line in an advance through the Ardennes region, a move totally… learn more

Dutch Armed Forces

Dutch mortat team in action

Strength and organization of the Army, Air Force and Navy of the Netherlands in Europe in May 1940 Dutch Army During World War One Holland’s neutrality had been respected and during the inter-war years her government saw fit to reduce… learn more

Norwegian Armed Forces

Three Allied soldiers evacuated from Norway

Strength and organization of the Army, Air Force and Navy of Norway in April 1940 In 1939, after more than a hundred years of peace, Norway did not possess a large standing army and her government considered that effective national… learn more

Red Air Force and Navy 1939

Polikarpov I-16 Rata

Russian Air Force Throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s the Soviet Government made enormous efforts to build up a large modern air force, but the difficulties in finding suitable designs and the machines and materials to mass produce aircraft were enormous.… learn more

Red Army 1939

Russian infantry with BT-7 tank

Strength and organization of the Russian Armed Forces in 1939 During 1939-40, the Red Army were undergoing a period of transition. New weapons and tactical ideas were being developed, but misguided and often stultifying central control meant that there was… learn more

Red Air Force and Navy 1941-1942

MiG-3 fighters over Leningrad

Russian Air Force 1942 The enforced lull in air operations during the winter period allowed the Red Air Force to recover from the first shocks. Training was improved and the quality of the aircrews rose generally through direct combat experience.… learn more

Red Army 1942

Russian infantry assault winter 1941-42

Strength and Organization of the Russian Armed Forces On 5 December 1941, in temperatures of minus 30 degrees centigrade, the Red Army launched its counter-offensive with 720,000 men, 670 tanks (205 of which were heavy KV-1 and medium T-34 models),… learn more