July 31, 1914 (Friday)

POLITICS: GERMANY GERMANY DECLARES IMMINENT DANGER OF WAR ALERT AT MIDNIGHT, ISSUES ULTIMATUMS TO RUSSIA AND FRANCE. Russia is told that it must cease all war preparations by noon on August 1, and the French government is requested to explain… learn more

July 30, 1914 (Thursday)

POLITICS: RUSSIA Tsar signs general mobilization order. First day actually August 4. Russian fleets mobilize. Zemstvos Union of rural councils formed. POLITICS: GERMANY At 02:00 Russia offers to Germany to stop mobilizing if Austria removes clauses against Serb sovereignty in… learn more

July 29, 1914 (Wednesday)

BALKANS FRONTS In the first engagement of what will become World War One, Austro­-Hungarian warships on the Danube River bombard Belgrade, the Serbian capital. Serbian artillery replies from Topcider heigts. Serbs demolish river Saba trestle bridge at Zemun. AIR WAR:… learn more

July 28, 1914 (Tuesday)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA at noon. Emperor Francis Joseph signs with tears in his eyes. Manifesto declares no quarrel with Russia. The telegram is sent in French via Bucharest to Belgrade. POLITICS: GERMANY Kaiser Wilhelm II finally… learn more

July 27, 1914 (Monday)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Austrian Foreign Minister Berchtold refuses to take Serb ultimatum reply as basis for future discussions. Austria decides to declare war on Serbia next day. The Emperor tells Baron Giesl: ‘We are not at war yet, and if I… learn more

July 26, 1914 (Sunday)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Austria begins to mobilize 8 corps on Russian frontier. Count Berchtold adopts German idea of immediate war declaration despite CoS Conrad saying no full invasion of Serbia possible for several weeks. POLITICS: MONTENEGRO Montenegro orders mobilization. POLITICS: GERMANY… learn more

July 25, 1914 (Saturday)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Austria refuses to extend ultimatum 48 hours for Russia who says she ‘cannot remain indifferent’. POLITICS: SERBIA Serb Crown Prince signs mobilization order at 15:00. Prime Minister Pasic hands in most conciliatory and almost humiliating answer to ultimatum… learn more

July 24, 1914 (Friday)

POLITICS: SERBIA Prince Alexander of Serbia cables Tsar for help. Russian and Serb Councils of Ministers meet. Latter receive Sazonov telegram pledging aid, but Tsar must decide and France must be consulted. POLITICS: RUSSIA Council of Ministers decides in principle… learn more

July 23, 1914 (Thursday)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA AUSTRIAN ULTIMATUM TO SERBIA presented at Belgrade by Austrain Minister Baron Giesl. Agreement to its 10 points demanded within 48 hours. Serb Prime Minister Pasic away electioneering in provinces is recalled and Russia appealed to for help. POLITICS:… learn more

July 22, 1914 (Wednesday)

POLITICS: RUSSIA Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov warns Vienna against drastic action against Serbia. POLITICS: GERMANY Austrian Berlin Ambassador shows German Foreign Minister Jagow the ultimatum, which he approves. POLITICS: BRITAIN British Foreign Minister Sir E Grey learns from HM Ambassador… learn more

JULY 21, 1914 (TUESDAY)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Conference at Ischl and Budapest on Serbia: Francis Joseph tells Finance Minister ‘Russia cannot swallow it. There’s no mistake about it, it will be a big war’. Russian Ambassador leaves Vienna for holiday after being assured Austrian demands… learn more

JULY 20, 1914 (MONDAY)

POLITICS: RUSSIA Tsar welcomes French President Poincare at Kronstadt naval base west of St Petersburg, evening banquet at Peterhof Palace. POLITICS: FRANCE Mme Caillaux (wife of Finance Minister) tried and acquitted (until July 28) for murder of Figaro editor on… learn more

JULY 19, 1914 (SUNDAY)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Council of Ministers meets secretly at Bertchtold’s house and approves ultimatum final text. It is to be delivered at 18:00 on July 23 when French President Poincare leaves Russia. Press scare over alleged ‘Greater Serbia’ conspiracy. POLITICS: BRITAIN… learn more

JULY 18, 1914 (SAMSTAG)

POLITICS: BRITAIN Spithead Naval Review (18-20 July): King George V reviews 260 Royal Navy ships off Portsmouth. learn more

JULY 17, 1914 (FRIDAY)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Report that Serbia has called up 70,000 reservists. Council of Ministers alter ultimatum delivery date to July 23. POLITICS: TURKEY Turk Berlin Embassy informs Constantinopel war not avoidable. learn more

JULY 16, 1914 (THURSDAY)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Count Berchtold cables Minister in Sofia to seek Bulgaria’s alliance against Serbia, but envoy fails to see Tsar Ferdinand by July 31. Austrian official to Rome Ambassador ‘we absolutely want to avoid the world war although Germany is… learn more

JULY 15, 1914 (WEDNESDAY)

POLITICS: HUNGARY Count Tisza tells Budapest Chamber relations with Serbia ‘must be cleared up’. POLITICS: FRANCE Senat passes £56.3 million military credits plus first general income tax (beginning 1916). learn more

JULY 14, 1914 (TUESDAY)

POLITICS: AUSTRIA Council of Ministers finally decide on action against Serbia; 48-hour ultimatum to be devlivered on July 25, after French State visit to Russia and harvesting. Berchtold gives Berlin no details, only date. POLITICS: BRITAIN House of Lords passes… learn more

JULY 13, 1914 (MONDAY)

POLITICS: SERBIA Reports of projected attack on Austrian Legation at Belgrade. POLITICS: RUSSIA Woman stabs Rasputin at his Tobolsk home, Siberia. POLITICS: FRANCE Senate revelations (13-14 July) of Army deficiencies. POLITICS: BRITAIN The Times leader on ‘Failure of Recruiting’. learn more

JULY 12, 1914 (SUNDAY)

POLITICS: FRANCE French President Poincare and Prime Minister Vivani embark at Dunkirk for long-arranged state visit to Russia; they sail in the newly completed battleship France. POLITICS: AUSTRIA The Austrian ambassador in Berlin urges Austrian Foreign Minister Berchtold to take… learn more