Diary December 31, 1915

Diary for Friday, December 31, 1915: African Fronts East Africa: Lettow writes to Kaiser listing Gouverneur Schnee’s interferences (Berlin receives it in August 1916 and reprimands). He now has 14,298 troops (2,988 whites). Western Front Flanders: Germans attack and slightly… learn more

Diary December 30, 1915

Diary for Thursday, December 30, 1915: Southern Fronts Salonika: First Zeppelin raid. Air War Salonika: First German air raid (by Zeppelins), a Greek shepherd killed on outskirts, but incident does not infuriate Greece. Neutrals Greece: French General Sarrail arrests and… learn more

Diary December 29, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, December 29, 1915: Western Front First conference between Joffre and Haig: summer 1916 (Somme) offensive mooted. Joffre proposes great combined offensive by 65 divisions on a 60-mile front Arras-west of Peronne-Lassigny. Flanders: ­German trenches raided by British… learn more

Diary December 28, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, December 28, 1915: Home Fronts Britain: Cabinet decides for conscription. Western Front Last of Indian Corps leaves France. Artillery activity near Armentieres and Ypres. Eastern Front Baltic Provinces: Latvian troops rout Germans on river Aa. Southern Fronts… learn more

Diary December 27, 1915

Diary for Monday, December 27, 1915: Eastern Front Galicia and Bukovina: Ivanov Offensive with 18 infantry and 4 cavalry divisions + 1,000 guns (1000 shells each) along 90-mile front from river Prut to north of river Dniester (until January 9,… learn more

Diary December 26, 1915

Diary for Sunday, December 26, 1915: Sea War North Sea: Disguised raider Möwe (Dohna-Schlodien) leaves Bremen, bluffs her way through Northern Patrol. On January 16 she captures British liner Appam (£2m cargo plus governors of Sierra Leone and Nigeria) north… learn more

Diary December 25, 1915

Diary for Saturday, December 25, 1915: African Fronts Uganda Railway: Germans repulsed from Ndi station (until next day); 17 British cause 24 German casualties in cross-border raid. Cameroons: British reject Christmas Day ceasefire and force Ngoa on December 26. Western… learn more

Diary December 24, 1915

Diary for Friday, December 24, 1915: Southern Fronts Montenegro: Austrian 62nd Division finally crosses river Tara after heroic Montenegrin resistance. Western Front Germany – Falkenhayn initiates prepara­tions for the Verdun offensive codenamed Gericht (Tribunal, Judgement, place of execu­tion): Fifth Army… learn more

Diary December 23, 1915

Diary for Thursday, December 23, 1915: Western Front France: Nivelle promoted to command French III Corps. African Fronts Cameroons: Final British advance on Yaunde resumes in 4 columns. learn more

Diary December 22, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, December 22, 1915: Western Front Alsace: First use of storm troops, Sturm battalion Rohrin (night 22/23) in successful German counter-attack on Hart­mannsweilerkopf: 82nd Landwehr Brigade recaptures the ridge, taking 1,553 PoWs but French success following day. Flanders:… learn more

Diary December 21, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, December 21, 1915: Western Front Sir W Robertson succeeds Sir A Murray as CIGS (Chief of British Imperial Generals Staff); like Haig, Robertson believes in attrition tactics and concentration of every man, gun and horse on the… learn more

Diary December 20, 1915

Diary for Monday, December 20, 1915: Middle East Gallipoli: ANZAC AND SUVLA BRIDGEHEADS EVACUATED by 0510 hours (20,652 men and 38 guns since December 19). Monro urges Helles evacuation on December 27, fierce storms on December 22-23. Western Front The… learn more

Diary December 19, 1915

Diary for Sunday, December 19, 1915: Air War Western Front: 48 Anglo-German air encounters. Western Front Flanders: Germans introduce phosgene gas (10 times toxicity of chlorine) against British at Pilkem-Wieltje north of Ypres; 1,069 soldiers gassed (120 dead), but no… learn more

Diary December 18, 1915

Diary for Saturday, December 18, 1915: Western Front Flanders: Sir J French’s farewell to BEF, leaves France on December 21. Joffre laments his departure. HAIG ASSUMES COMMAND OF BEF at noon. African Fronts Cameroons: 1,100 soldiers of French Eastern Force… learn more

Diary December 17, 1915

Diary for Friday, December 17, 1915: Western Front Artillery activity all along the front. Artois: German grenade attack about the quarries north of Loos. Middle East Britain: Mark Sykes argues for Egypt offensive and Arab revolt before War Committee, fears… learn more

Diary December 16, 1915

Diary for Thursday, December 16, 1915: Western Front French War Minister Gallieni brings Verdun defences’ defects to Joffre‘s attention. Flanders: British trench raid near Armentieres. Sea War U-boat U24 (Schneider) sails from Heligoland to intercept troop transports entering Le Havre,… learn more

Diary December 15, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, December 15, 1915: Eastern Front German War Minister at Hindenburg Headquarter. Western Russia: ­Russian penetration north of lake Drisviati (south of Dvinsk) repulsed. Russians also repelled near mouth of Beresina but German column broken up north of… learn more

Diary December 14, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, December 14, 1915: African Fronts East Africa: Strong memo of Kitchener against offensive overruled. British troops reformed in 2 divisions on December 16. Western Front Paris and Berlin communiques agree that no important events had occurred (according… learn more

Diary December 13, 1915

Diary for Monday, December 13, 1915: Sea War Adriatic: Fourth and last Austrian Tegetthott-class dreadnought Szent Istvan completed at Pola. Western Front Meuse: French destroy last German pontoon bridge at St Mihiel. Southern Fronts Serbia: Bulgars occupy Doiran and Gevgel.… learn more

Diary December 12, 1915

Diary for Sunday, December 12, 1915: Southern Fronts Albania: Serb Army evacuation begins. 1st Drina Division loses 981 men until December 14. Salonika: Allied troops begin arriving back in Salonika by train (until December 17). Bulgars do not cross Greek… learn more