Diary April 30, 1915

Diary for Friday, April 30, 1915: Middle East Enver Pasha orders Liman to ‘drive the invaders into the sea’; 2 divisions from Asia Minor transferred to Gallipoli. Allied losses now total c.11,000. (War Office estimates for all operations just c.5,000).… learn more

Diary April 29, 1915

Diary for Thursday, April 29, 1915: Air War Britain: First raid by German Army Zeppelin: LZ38 (Linnarz) drops IBs at Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk (opportunity targets); some damage including 3 casualties (night April 29-30). Western Front Flanders: Foch… learn more

Diary April 28, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, April 28, 1915: Middle East Gallipoli – First Battle of Krithia: 14,000 Allies advance 2 miles (3,000 casualties). Anzac troops: 2 Royal Marines battalions to reinforce. Yemen­: British treaty with Chief Idrisi against Turks. Western Front Flanders:… learn more

Diary April 27, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, April 27, 1915: Western Front Ypres: Allies advance, French recapture Lizerne. Field Marshal French replaces Smith­-Dorrien by Plumer in command of British Second Army because of former’s ‘pessimism’. Eastern Front Galicia: Army Group Mackensen formed to include… learn more

Diary April 26, 1915

Diary for Monday, April 26, 1915: Middle East Gallipoli: Hill 141 stormed and V Beach secured. Turk attacks on Anzac and Y Beaches repulsed but latter abandoned in panic. Western Front Kitchener declares that ‘Germany has stooped to acts which… learn more

Diary April 25, 1915

Diary for Sunday, April 25, 1915: Middle East BRITISH LANDINGS ON GALLIPOLI PENINSULA: 33,000 Allies land round Cape Helles, at Anzac Cove (mistakenly) and Kum Kale in Asia (3,000 French in feint until next day). Losses: Allies c.4,178, Turk c.4,730.… learn more

Diary April 24, 1915

Diary for Saturday, April 24, 1915: Western Front Ypres – Battle of St Julien begins: with 0400 hours gas cloud aid Germans capture St Julien. Franco-Belgians hold west of Lizerne. Successful Canadian counter-attacks at Lizerne. British extend GHO line south… learn more

Diary April 23, 1915

Diary for Friday, April 23, 1915: Western Front Ypres – Second German gas attack: they take Langemarck, Steenstraate bridge and positions south of Lizerne as Allied counter­-attack collapses. First Canadian VC of the war: L/Cp F Fisher (13th Bn). Southern… learn more

Diary April 22, 1915

Diary for Thursday, April 22, 1915: Western Front SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES (until May 13): Battle of Graven­stafel (Ridge) (until April 23). Big Berthas shell Ypres. FIRST WESTERN FRONT POISON GAS ATTACK begun by German Fourth Army at 1700 hours… learn more

Diary April 21, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, April 21, 1915: Eastern Front 8 German divisions begin rail move (60 trains per day) to south of Cracow. Russians discover this from April 25. Austrians repulsed near Gorlice which sector new German Eleventh Army takes over… learn more

Diary April 20, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, April 20, 1915: Eastern Front Austrian High Command estimate 1,001,000 Austro­-Germans (11 armies) fighting 1,540,000 Russians on 720­-mile front. Western Front Flanders: Gas shells test­fired at Hill 60 by German Fourth Army. ‘Hate shoot’ on Ypres kills… learn more

Diary April 19, 1915

Diary for Monday, April 19, 1915: Air War Western Front: Morane ‘L’ fighter (Lt Roland Garros) , damaged by German rifleman Schlenst­edt in Courtrai rail station, makes forced landing behind German lines, near Ingelmunster. Attempts to burn plane fail to… learn more

Diary April 18, 1915

Diary for Sunday, April 18, 1915: Neutrals Holland­: International Women’s Peace Congress opens in Hague (1,136 delegates from 12 countries). British Admiralty suspen­sion of ferries (22 April-1 May) stops 25 from Britain. Middle East India: First action at Hafiz Kor… learn more

Diary April 17, 1915

Diary for Saturday, April 17, 1915: Sea War Dardanelles­: British submarine E15 lost aground (24 PoWs) near Kephez Point, destroyed by Majestic’s picket boat next day, but E14 gets through. This is the first Allied submarine to do so in… learn more

Diary April 16, 1915

Diary for Friday, April 16, 1915: Politics Austria: Government finds Italy’s territory proposals mainly unacceptable. Western Front Artois: Unsuccessful German attacks at Notre-Dame de Lorette. Middle East Persia: Kalil Bey (Enver’s uncle) reaches Urmia in northwest with 36th Division and… learn more

Diary April 15, 1915

Diary for Thursday, April 15, 1915: Southern Fronts Italy: Italian forces of Advanced Occupation facing Austrian frontier now 142,000 men in five zones. Politics Austria: CoS Conrad asks Foreign Minister to keep Italy at least for four weeks out of… learn more

Diary April 14, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, April 14, 1915: Home Fronts Russia: Moscow Military district has sent 500,000 men to the front so far. Britain: Stokes mortar trial successful, but turned down. Western Front Flanders: French General Putz obtains details of planned gas… learn more

Diary April 13, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, April 13, 1915: Air War Western Front: German Army airship L235 damaged by AA fire while bombing Poperinghe and wrecked in forced landing near Ypres. Western Front Aisne: French success near Berry-au-Bac. Sea War Bulgaria: Battleship Agamemnon… learn more

Diary April 12, 1915

Diary for Monday, April 12, 1915: Middle East Mesopota­mia – Battle of Shaiba (until April 14) southwest of Basra: 6,156 British soldiers (1,265 casualties) rout 12,000 Turks (3,177 casualties and 2 guns lost). Major Wheeler (7th Hariana Lancers) wins 1st… learn more

Diary April 11, 1915

Diary for Sunday, April 11, 1915: Air War Germany: Zeppelin VGO I (Staaken R I) giant tri-motor bomber first flies. Western Front Somme: French engaged in heavy fighting near Albert. Eastern Front CoS Yanushkevich vainly warns Northwest Front C-in-C Alexeiev… learn more