Diary December 31, 1915

Diary for Friday, December 31, 1915: African Fronts East Africa: Lettow writes to Kaiser listing Gouverneur Schnee’s interferences (Berlin receives it in August 1916 and reprimands). He now has 14,298 troops (2,988 whites). Western Front Flanders: Germans attack and slightly… learn more

Diary December 30, 1915

Diary for Thursday, December 30, 1915: Southern Fronts Salonika: First Zeppelin raid. Air War Salonika: First German air raid (by Zeppelins), a Greek shepherd killed on outskirts, but incident does not infuriate Greece. Neutrals Greece: French General Sarrail arrests and… learn more

Diary December 29, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, December 29, 1915: Western Front First conference between Joffre and Haig: summer 1916 (Somme) offensive mooted. Joffre proposes great combined offensive by 65 divisions on a 60-mile front Arras-west of Peronne-Lassigny. Flanders: ­German trenches raided by British… learn more

Diary December 28, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, December 28, 1915: Home Fronts Britain: Cabinet decides for conscription. Western Front Last of Indian Corps leaves France. Artillery activity near Armentieres and Ypres. Eastern Front Baltic Provinces: Latvian troops rout Germans on river Aa. Southern Fronts… learn more

Diary December 27, 1915

Diary for Monday, December 27, 1915: Eastern Front Galicia and Bukovina: Ivanov Offensive with 18 infantry and 4 cavalry divisions + 1,000 guns (1000 shells each) along 90-mile front from river Prut to north of river Dniester (until January 9,… learn more

Diary December 26, 1915

Diary for Sunday, December 26, 1915: Sea War North Sea: Disguised raider Möwe (Dohna-Schlodien) leaves Bremen, bluffs her way through Northern Patrol. On January 16 she captures British liner Appam (£2m cargo plus governors of Sierra Leone and Nigeria) north… learn more

Diary December 25, 1915

Diary for Saturday, December 25, 1915: African Fronts Uganda Railway: Germans repulsed from Ndi station (until next day); 17 British cause 24 German casualties in cross-border raid. Cameroons: British reject Christmas Day ceasefire and force Ngoa on December 26. Western… learn more

Diary December 24, 1915

Diary for Friday, December 24, 1915: Southern Fronts Montenegro: Austrian 62nd Division finally crosses river Tara after heroic Montenegrin resistance. Western Front Germany – Falkenhayn initiates prepara­tions for the Verdun offensive codenamed Gericht (Tribunal, Judgement, place of execu­tion): Fifth Army… learn more

Diary December 23, 1915

Diary for Thursday, December 23, 1915: Western Front France: Nivelle promoted to command French III Corps. African Fronts Cameroons: Final British advance on Yaunde resumes in 4 columns. learn more

Diary December 22, 1915

Diary for Wednesday, December 22, 1915: Western Front Alsace: First use of storm troops, Sturm battalion Rohrin (night 22/23) in successful German counter-attack on Hart­mannsweilerkopf: 82nd Landwehr Brigade recaptures the ridge, taking 1,553 PoWs but French success following day. Flanders:… learn more

Diary December 21, 1915

Diary for Tuesday, December 21, 1915: Western Front Sir W Robertson succeeds Sir A Murray as CIGS (Chief of British Imperial Generals Staff); like Haig, Robertson believes in attrition tactics and concentration of every man, gun and horse on the… learn more

Diary December 20, 1915

Diary for Monday, December 20, 1915: Middle East Gallipoli: ANZAC AND SUVLA BRIDGEHEADS EVACUATED by 0510 hours (20,652 men and 38 guns since December 19). Monro urges Helles evacuation on December 27, fierce storms on December 22-23. Western Front The… learn more