Diary January 31, 1916

Diary for Monday, January 31, 1916: Air War Britain: First German airship raid on the Midlands by 9 Zeppelins (night January 31-February 1) sporadic and off course, Liverpool not reached but frequent false alarms (until March 5). Naval Airship Division… learn more

Diary January 30, 1916

Diary for Sunday, January 30, 1916: Home Fronts Britain: War Savings Committees begun. France: BEF arrest Attorney-General F E Smith for visiting Churchill’s HQ without a pass. He, Bonar Law and Lloyd George agree following day at St Omer that… learn more

Diary January 29, 1916

Diary for Saturday, January 29, 1916: Secret War Britain: Mother prototype tank begins successful trials. Western Front Somme: German Second Army success northeast of Dampierre. Eastern Front Alexeiev (Russian Chief of Staff) to Admiral Eberhardt (Black Sea Fleet): ‘… we… learn more

Diary January 28, 1916

Diary for Friday, January 28, 1916: Eastern Front Russia: Prince Lvov and the Mayor of Moscow visit General Alexeiev; Army morale much improved but hardly an able officer above regiment commanders. Tsar does not interfere. Southern Fronts Albania: Austrians occupy… learn more

Diary January 27, 1916

Diary for Thursday, January 27, 1916: Western Front Flanders and Artois: German attacks at Loos and Neuville-St Vaast. Argonne: Mining and counter-mining activity. Verdun: Falkenhayn‘s final orders for Operation ‘Gericht’, ‘an offensive in the Meuse area in the direction of… learn more

Diary January 26, 1916

Diary for Wednesday, January 26, 1916: Southern Fronts Falkenhayn orders Gallwitz to prepare attack across Greek frontier; despite Bulgar protests Germans stock shells at Veles, but single-line railway overstrained. African Fronts Southern Cameroons: Allies occupy Nkan; the 550 or more… learn more

Diary January 25, 1916

Diary for Tuesday, January 25, 1916: Middle East Armenia: Russian battalion seizes key Kargapazar (‘Crow Bazaar’) Ridge (c.9750 ft); 15 miles northeast of Erzerum. Whole 4th Caucasus Rifle Division concen­trates there by January 31. Mesopota­mia: Aylmer encamps at El Owasa;… learn more

Diary January 24, 1916

Diary for Monday, January 24, 1916: Sea War North Sea: Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer becomes C-in-C German High Seas Fleet in succession to Pohl (resigns January 19, dies in February of cancer, aged 60). Scheer advocates offensive and proposes battlecruiser raids… learn more

Diary January 23, 1916

Diary for Sunday, January 23, 1916: Air War First Royal Flying Corps all-FE2b two-seat pusher squadron (No 20) reaches France (No 25 on 20 February; No 23 on 16 March; No 22 on 1 April). Western Front Artois: Violent German… learn more

Diary January 22, 1916

Diary for Saturday, January 22, 1916: Southern Fronts Montenegro: Austrians occupy Antivari and Culcigno on coast. Albania: ­Austro-Bulgarian troops take Berat. Sea War Montenegro: Allied evacuation at San Giovanni di Medusa (8,338 men) ends. Air War Britain: Hit-and-run single or… learn more

Diary January 21, 1916

Neutrals Switzerland: Severely wounded Franco­-German PoW exchange. Politics US ‘Colonel’ House in Paris, at Berlin on January 26, returns to Paris on February 2. Eastern Front Renewed Russian attack in East Poland. Southern Fronts Albania: Austrian patrols enter Scutari. Middle… learn more

Diary January 20, 1916

Diary for Thursday, January 20, 1916: Middle East Gallipoli: 36,000 Turkish soldiers (more than 2 divisions) leave for Mesopotamia. Western Front Verdun: Castelnau, Joffre‘s deputy, inspects defences, puts improvements in hand. African Fronts Southern Cameroons: French Southern Force takes Mansin,… learn more

Diary January 19, 1916

Diary for Wednesday, January 19, 1916: Southern Fronts King Nicholas of Montenegro flees to Scutari, thence sails to Brindisi. Middle East Mesopotamia: Lieutenant-General Sir P Lake succeeds Nixon as C­-in-C. Aylmer resumes advance­. Kut: Turks repulsed from Woolpress village on… learn more

Diary January 18, 1916

Diary for Tuesday, January 18, 1916: Occupied countries Serbia: Tsar Ferdinand arrives in Nis, greets Kaiser off new ‘German Balkan Express’; town hall banquet, Ferdinand made German Field Marshal. Sea War Aegean: Allied warships again shell Bulgar Dedeagach and the… learn more

Diary January 17, 1916

Diary for Monday, January 17, 1916: Middle East Mesopotamia: Nixon vetoes Aylmer’s suggestion that Townshend break out from Kut and is invalided to India following day. Viceroy of India agrees to send 3 more brigades. Southern Fronts MONTENEGRO SURREN­DERS: General… learn more

Diary January 16, 1916

Diary for Sunday, January 16, 1916: Southern Fronts Salonika: General Sarrail takes formal joint Allied command (including 3,000 Serb troops), but British retain veto over anything but defensive measures. Middle East Mesopotamia: Townshend radios Aylmer that Kut has 17­-21 days… learn more

Diary January 15, 1916

Diary for Saturday, January 15, 1916: Sea War Germany: Chief of Navy Staff Holtzendorff claims new U­-boats can put Britain out of war in 6-7 months, pressing Kaiser on January 24. North Sea: Dover Patrol monitors shell Westeinde, Belgium (and… learn more

Diary January 14, 1916

Diary for Friday, January 14, 1916: Home Fronts France: Colonel Estienne and Creusot engineer Brillie design Schneider tank with 75mm gun and 10mm armour, Joffre wants 400. Ireland: Lord Lieutenant reports 146,000 enlistments to army to date, 100,000 more available.… learn more

Diary January 13, 1916

Diary for Thursday, January 13, 1916: Middle East Mesopotamia – Battle of Wadi (until January 14): Aylmer (1,613 casulaties) takes Turk position but fails to cut Turk retreat (2,000 casualties) on Um-el-Hanna. Heavy rains and wind (January 14-18) break British… learn more

Diary January 12, 1916

Diary for Wednesday, January 12, 1916: Air War Western Front: Immelmann and Boelcke first German airmen (8 air victories each) to receive Pour le Merite. Gallipoli: Turco­-German Fokker Es (3 recently arrived) shoot down a second RNAS aircraft off Helles… learn more