Germany: In December the maiden flight of Junkers J-1, world’s first all-metal (steel) Cantilever wing monoplane.
Eastern Front: In December first Russian single-seat fighter units created with a few Sikorskys having forward-firing MGs with interrupter gear, but unreliable.
Britain – in December Royal Navy Air Service adopts revised nomenclature: unit of 6 pilots designated a flight; 2 or 3 flights combine to form a squadron, RFC bases 3 BE2s at Cramlington to defend Tyneside against Zeppelins.
France: Colonel Driant, Nancy deputy and CO Chasseur Regiment near Verdun, informs Chamber of Deputies that Verdun defences are unorganized and inadequate.
Flanders: British explode a mine east of Bois Francais; Germans reply with a mine.
Gallipoli – Monro to London: ‘If decision cannot be reached very shortly, it may be equivalent to deciding against evacuation’.
Mesopotamia – Action of Umm-at-Tubul: Townshend’s 6,500 soldiers (536 casualties) check 12,000 Turks (748 casualties). Gunboats Firefly and Comet run aground and captured by Turks.
Eastern Mediterranean: During December U38 and UC12 (from Cattaro) land munitions near Bardia (Cyrenaica) for Senussi.
Adriatic: Now 92 Royal Navy drifters (based at Brindisi) trying to seal 45-mile Otranto Straits.
Greece: In December Novelist Compton Mackenzie heads British counter intelligence in Athens as agent ‘Z’.
‘Transito’ Syndicate formed to speed goods via Sweden to Russia.
Britain: Retail Food prices +44%. Bank closing time 3pm from 4pm. In December rail passengers ordered to pull down blinds (rescinded Mar 1917). Ian Hay‘s The First Hundred Thousand best-seller on original BEF published.
Germany: During December butter scarce, copper roofs in Berlin removed.
Russia: In December Order of St George annual parade before Tsar including represents of all Army Corps and the Fleets.