Champagne and Marne: GENERAL GERMAN RETREAT begins towards Eperrau, then extends to Marne and Ourcq valleys.
Western Front: Major E ‘Mick’ Mannock DSO, Commander No 85 Squadron RAF (73 victories since June 7, 1917) killed aged 31, shot down by rifle shot in petrol tank turning for home after final victory (an LVG). Top-scoring British ace and war’s outstanding fighter patrol leader, awarded posthumous Victoria Cross on July 18, 1919.
Azerbaijan: Central Caspian Dictatorship of five topple Reds in Baku and invite Dunsterforce. Turks capture 1 British Duncar and 2 lorries to west.
Mozambique: 28 Gold Coast Mounted Infantry surprise German baggage train on river Ligonha, take 21 porters and 2 Germans, but most captors and PoWs taken on July 27 leaving only 65 out of 165 troopers.