Diary June 1, 1915

Mustapha Kemal

Mustapha Kemal, later known as Ataturk and regarded as the founding father of modern Turkey. As professional soldier he rose to public prominence for his role in defeating the Anglo-French landing at Gallipoli, where his energy and drive prevented the invaders from capitalizing on their surprise attack.

Diary for Tuesday, June 1, 1915:

Middle East

Gallipoli: Kemal promoted Colonnel, also given Iron Cross and St Alexander (Bulgar) decoration.
Mesopotamia: 3 Royal Navy sloops lead Tigris pursuit, capture Turk gunboat Marmarls and steamer Mosul next day.
India: Baluchistan-Kalat operations until July 10.

Western Front

Artois: French gain trenches at Souchez.
France: In June General Dumezil designs his trench mortar (35lb-99lb stick bombs), used by French (standard), Italian, Russian and US Armies.

Southern Fronts

Italian Front: Italians hold slopes of Mt Nero (Isonzo), make further gains there by June 20 and advance in Adlge valley.

Sea War

Arctic: U-boats also minelay off Archangel; 6 Royal Navy trawlers sent to help Russians destroy 150 mines by October for Armed Merchant Cruiser Arlanza damaged, 1 trawler and 9 steamers (1 Russian) sunk.
Atlantic – First transatlantic crossing by submarines: Canadian-built (at Montreal) ‘H’ class of Royal Navy, 10 boats delivered but rest delayed by US till entry into war. US Bethlehem Steel used.

Air War

France: In June future ace Fonck joins Escadrille C47.
Britain: ­RNAS causes confusion by redesignating squadrons as ‘wings’ and flights as ‘squadrons’ (rescinded in December).
Italy: French floatplane squadron (Conneau) arrives at Venice. Austrians bomb Bari and Brindisi.
Eastern Front: In June Cavalry Lieutenant Richthofen posted as air observer, lands safely after German infantry MG brings his Albatros B1 down.
Britain : First flight of Airco (De Havilland) DH2 single-seat pusher-engined fighters. Government D-Notice orders Press to publish only official statements on air raids.
USA: ­First US-Navy airship ordered (first flight in April 1917).

Secret War

Germany: From June British agent in Switzerland receiving regular reports from five German cities.
Russia: Tsar’s telegram to King of Denmark refuses to receive German peace mediator at Petrograd.

Home Fronts

Britain: In June first women skilled workers in private munitions factory (Glasgow). Cotton industry accepts female substitution (June 9), National Union of Railwaymen accept women members (June 24).
Retail Food Price 32%. Asquith returns from four-day Western Front visit.
Austria: 2,000 wagons of flour from Berlin saves Vienna food position.
France: During June 100,000 conscripts diverted to munitions factories.

Call of War
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