Dolomites: Italian 17th Division captures Cima Layazuoi and secures Cima Falzarego.
Champagne: German gas attack east of Reims.
Gallipoli: Churchill memo urges gas helmets be sent as large German gas stocks reported (falsely) to have reached Constantinople; also urges use of gas against Muslims.
Britain: Government abolishes London Declarations’s Article 57 (ship’s nationality denoted by flag).
Italy: New taxes and increases for duration of war.
Britain: Women bus and tram conductors permitted. (First two in Glasgow following April).
Lord Cecil abolishes press censorship of foreign affairs, subject to DORA (British ‘Defence of the Real Act’)
South Africa: Botha wins the general election.