Type VII U-boat


U-Boat Type 7 class (VII), most numerous German submarines of World War II with 705 boats.
History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures and 3D model.

U-995 of Type VIIC, today a museum submarine.

Type 7C, 7A, 7B, 7D (total of 705 U-boats Type VII)
Type: submarine.


Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany was not allowed to retain or build any submarines so that at the outbreak of war in 1939 the German U-boat fleet was comparatively modern, all the vessels having been built since 1935. Between 1919 and 1934 German submarine technicians had not been idle, and among those submarines built in various European shipyards to German design and with German technical assistance were Gür built in 1932 for the Turkish navy, and Vesikko built in 1933 for Finland.
Gür was 72.4 m (237 ft 6 in) long and displaced 750 tons (surfaced) and 960 tons (submerged), and was armed with six torpedo tubes (four bow and two stern) and one 4-in (102-mm) gun. Vesikko was a smaller boat of only 250 tons (surfaced) and 300 tons (submerged); it was 40.8 m (134 ft) long, and armed with three bow 53-cm (21-in) torpedo tubes and a small gun.
Thus Gür provided a prototype for an ocean-going submarine, while Vesikko was the forerunner of the coastal submarines.

Type II

In order to get the building programme under way as rapidly as possible to fulfil the need to have submarines at sea and to train future crews, it was the coastal submarines of Type II, as they were to be known, that were the first to be laid down. The first such boat for the German navy, called U-1, was launched in Kiel in June 1935, the remainder following shortly afterwards. The class II B and II C were similar, but were larger and carried additional fuel to increase their range. II D boats were introduced in 1940; they were still larger; and were fitted with saddle tanks to increase their range further. Although used for operations early in the war these boats were soon relegated to training duties, an essential part of the enormous expansion programme that the U-Boat arm was to undertake.

German U-boat Type Imore
Type II U-boats from a training flotillia.more

Type I

Meanwhile the Type I, of which only two boats were built, gave the German navy a capability of operations in the Atlantic. Basically the same design and performance as Gür, these two boats in turn were to become the prototype, with the UB48 Class of 1917, of a new series of ocean-going submarines, the Type VII U Boat. This type, with its several variants, was undoubtedly the mainstay of the German submarine fleet throughout the war. The variants retained many structural characteristics of the original Type VII but were designed either for better performance or for more specialized roles.


The first U-boat VII A was U-27, launched in 1936, designed for operations in the Atlantic. It had good seakeeping qualities and easy handling both on the surface and submerged, and carried the best possible torpedo armament that could be fitted into a submarine of less than 65 m (213 ft) in length and only 626 tons surfaced displacement. Inevitably this was achieved at the expense of other factors, and habitability was spartan, to say the least. The U boats VII As are distinguished by their single external torpedo tube aft. U 30, a boat of this type, was responsible for sinking the liner Athenia early in the war.


Guenther Priens U-47 from VII B is leaving for Scapa Flow. Six weeks after the start of the war Germany had its first heroes. Prien entered with his submarine the British naval base Scapa Flow and sunks the battleship Royal Oak.

U-45, the first U-boat VII B, was launched in April 1938. The type had increased size and displacement to accommodate higher-performance engines and more fuel. The stern torpedo tube was made internal with the hull. The U-47 commanded by Korvetten-­Kapitän Günther Prien entered Scapa Flow in 1939 and sank Royal Oak, and later was to sink many thousands of tons of Allied shipping in the Atlantic.


The 7C U-boats (VII C), introduced in 1940, had a further increase in displacement and fuel capacity, more torpedo reloads, and a better AA armament. Contracts were placed for 688 submarines of this type, though later same of these were cancelled and others were destroyed by enemy action during construction.

Type VIIC-41

The VII C-41 class differed only in that it had a stronger hull to give a greater diving depth. Eight submarines of this type were to have been completed for the Italian navy, but they were taken into commission by the Germans themselves following the Italian surrender. U 573 was interned in Spain at Cartagena after being badly damaged by depth charges dropped from an RAF aircraft in 1942. The following year she was sold to Spain and renumbered G7. U 570 surrendered after being damaged by an RAF aircraft south of Iceland, and later was commissioned as HMS Graph.

Type VIIC-42

Orders for a second variant, the U-boats 7 C-42, were cancelled to allow production to concentrate on newer types. Had it entered service it would have had increased range and an even greater diving depth.

-565 from the submarine class Type 7C. The submarine ran 17 knots surfaced, had very good manoeuvreability and was excellent usable for the wulf pack tactics.more
Two German submarines with wolf pack tactics in the North Atlantic.more
View from the bridge to the bow of a U-boat in the Biscay during heavy seas.more
View from the U-boat bridge on the rear deck and the 'winter garden'.more
After the sinking of the battleship Royal Oak: the crew of U-47, the commander in the dark coat. The naval hero and his crew in the U-boat with the bull emblem indeed survived only one and a half years. After a convoy battle in March 1941 U-47 was reported missing.more
Lookout in the tower of a submarine. Vigilance was the first commandment on patrol.more
Members of a submarine crew. For the U-boat arm numerous volunteers were reported. From 39,000 U-boat crew members 33,000 lost their lives at sea.more
Inside huge concrete bunkers the submarines were save from allied air raids were safemore
On the shores of occupied Europe concrete bunkers were built for the U-boats. A submarine leaves one of this U-boat bunkers.more
Since mid-1943 the submarines came under increased air strikes: a British Halifax bomber of the Coastal Command of the RAF has disabled a submarine with its bombs and is now attacking the U-boat with his guns.more
U-243 sinks under attack from a Sunderland flying boat of 10 Squadron RAAF, Bay of Biscay July 8, 1944.more
3D model Type VIIBmore


A minelaying variant, the U-boats VII D, was introduced in 1942. The six boats of this type had a 9.8-m (32 ft 2-in) section added into the hull aft of the conning tower to take five free­flooding mine chutes carrying a total of 15 moored mines similar to those carried by surface minelayers.


In the VII F this extra section was adapted to carry 25 torpedoes to replenish other submarines already on patrol. Four boats of this type were built, and they carried additional fuel to increase their range. In addition to the replenishment torpedoes for other boats they had their own establishment of torpedoes to carry out their own operations.

A total of 705 boats of all variants had entered service by the time of the surrender in 1945, and of these, 437 were lost in action. The U977 (VIIC) left Norway rather than surrender, and after a continuous submerged passage of 66 days reached Argentina on August 17, 1945, where her crew were interned.

Type XIV

The U-boats XIV were tanker U-Boats derived from the VIIC class. They were used to supply fuel to ether submarines to increase their time on patrol, and for this purpose they carried an additional 203 tons of fuel. They had no torpedo tubes of their own though they carried four torpedoes for transfer to other boats.

'Submarine gas station' in the South Atlantic. A submarine approaches to the surfaced U-tankers to take oil.more
Two German U-Boats are served by a U-tanker near the American east coast.more
A submarine tanker supplies with pipelines on buoys two German U-boats with oil. Only in this way are operations over long distances possible.more

Users: Germany, Spain, Japan.

Museum U-boat U-995 (VIIC)

Launched: July 22, 1943 (Hamburg); commissioned September 16, 1943
History: On VE-day (May 8, 1945) surrendered to Great Britain. In 1952 handed over to Norwegian navy. In use as training submarine until 1962. Given back to Germany in 1965 and rebuild to the condition of May 1945. Since 1977 as museum u-boat in exhibition at Laboe (Germany).

Pictures from interior and outer of U-995:

Museum U-boat U-995 of Type VIIC.more
U-995 on the beachmore
Museum u-boat U-995more
Bow of U-995more
Type VII C U-boat more
U-995 outer skin.more
U-995 interiormore
U-boat interiormore
U-995 pic insidemore
Type VIIC machinesmore
Type VIIC torpedo hatchmore
torpedo german u-boat insidemore
Type VIIC equipment machinesmore
hatch of submarinemore
Galley and spare WCmore

Animated 3D model of U-boat VIIB

Specifications for German U-boats Type VII

Specification VIIA VIIB VIIC VIIC-41
Typ Ocean-going submarines
Displacement (surfaced / submerged) 626/745 tons 753/857 tons 769/871 tons 769/871 tons
Length 213 ft (64.9 m) 219.5 ft (66.9 m) 221.5 ft (67.5 m) 221.5 ft (67.5 m)
Beam 19.4 ft( 5.9 m) 20.3 ft (6.2 m) 20.3 ft (6.2 m) 20.3 ft (6.2 m)
Draught 14.4 ft (4.4 m) 15.4 ft (4.7 m) 15.4 ft (4.7 m) 15.4 ft (4.7 m)
Engines two diesel, one electric motor with 2 shafts
Power 2800 hp surfaced, 750 hp submerged
Fuel 67 tons 108 tons 114 tons 114 tons
Speed (surfaced / submerged) 17/8 kn 18/8 kn 17.75/7.5 kn 17.5/7.5 kn
Range 4,300 nm at 12 kn 6,500 nm at 12 kn 6,500 nm at 12 kn (8,850 nm at 10 kn)
Diving depth (max) ? 490 ft 590 ft
Quick diving ? 30 sec 25-30 sec
Crew ? ? 44
Specification VIIA VIIB VIIC VIIC-41
Torpedo tubes 4 bow 21-in (53.3 cm) torpedo tubes, 1 stern 21-in torpedo tube
Torpedos 11 14 14 14
Secondary Armament 1 x 3.5-in (8.8 cm) gun - -
Anti-aircraft 1 x 2 cm (0.79-in) 1 x 3.7 cm (1.46-in); 2 x 2 cm (0.79-in) 1 x 3.7 cm (1.46-in); 2 x 2 cm (0.79-in) 1 x 3.7 cm (1.46-in); up to 3 x 2 cm (0.79-in)
Service statistics
class VII data
sub VIIA U27-36
sub VIIB U45-55; 73-76; 83-87; 99-102
sub VIIC U69-72; 77-82; 88-98; 132-136; 201-212; 221-232; 235-458; 465-486; 551-683; 701-779; 821-836; 901-08; 921-930; 951-1058; 1063-1065
sub VIIC-41 U 1101-1220; 1271-1279; 1301-1308
total 705 subs
Launching (all) June 1936 (U-27) – November 1944 (U-1308). VIIC from 1940.
Operational 1936-1945
Fate 437 sunk for different reasons, 165 scuttled at VE day, 103 surrendered

Development of the U-boat arm 1942-1945

German U-boat arm
month commission in service losses losses total
Jan 1942 10 244 3 64
Feb 1942 18 257 2 67
Mar 1942 18 267 6 69
Apr 1942 17 282 3 75
May 1942 26 295 3 78
Jun 1942 20 315 3 81
Jul 1942 22 323 12 84
Aug 1942 21 344 11 95
Sep 1942 19 353 12 107
Oct 1942 26 356 16 119
Nov 1942 26 368 14 135
Dec 1942 22 391 3 149
Jan 1943 22 407 6 152
Feb 1943 22 407 22 158
Mar 1943 26 412 17 180
Apr 1943 26 421 17 197
May 1943 27 407 40 214
Jun 1943 26 415 19 254
Jul 1943 26 421 20 273
Aug 1943 19 425 24 293
Sep 1943 22 434 8 317
Oct 1943 26 430 28 325
Nov 1943 25 437 19 351
Dec 1943 31 456 7 370
Jan 1944 23 471 16 377
Feb 1944 18 475 19 393
Mar 1944 23 470 23 412
Apr 1944 19 474 19 435
May 1944 18 479 24 454
Jun 1944 12 471 26 473
Jul 1944 15 461 22 504
Aug 1944 15 435 41 526
Sep 1944 19 426 24 567
Oct 1944 16 433 12 591
Nov 1944 24 442 7 603
Dec 1944 26 452 14 610
Jan 1945 36 467 11 624
Feb 1945 24 478 25 635
Mar 1945 29 456 36 660
Apr 1945 9 435 60 696
May 1945 0 399 245 756

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