World War One


Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences of the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, more than 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Smith & Wesson Revolvers

Smith&Wesson Model 1905 ‘Victory’

Smith & Wesson Revolvers M1905, M1917 and 0.38/200 from World War One and Two. History, development, specifications, statistics, pictures and 3D model. In the middle of the nineteenth century, widespread revolvers with cartridges in a rotating drum behind the barrel… learn more

BAR

BAR

BAR – Browning Automatic Rifle, US light machine gun or assault rifle from both World Wars. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) Type: heavy automatic rifle or light machine gun. Browning M1918 in World… learn more

Russian Army

The Russian Army of the Tsar in World War One from August 1, 1914 to December 15, 1917. Uniforms, organization, leaders, organization and casualties. For Russia, whose population numbered 167,000,000, manpower seemed the least of her problems. Bad roads, scant… learn more

Serbian Army

The Serbian Army in World War One from 1914 to 1918. Uniforms, organization, leaders, strength, casualties and the army of Montenegro. Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Although Russia went to war to rescue Serbia, the Serbian… learn more

Battleships Queen Elizabeth class

British Battleships Queen Elizabeth class. History, development, service in the First World War, specifications, statistics and pictures. History One of the most successful classes of capital ships ever built, the five units of the Queen Elizabeth class were also the… learn more

Austro-Hungarian Army

The Austro-Hungarian Army in the Great War from 1914 to 1918. Uniforms, strength, organization, military leaders, losses. Austria-Hungary had been worsted by the French in 1859, and in 1866 trounced by Prussia. Since then the army had been reformed on… learn more

Armoured Cruiser Blücher

German Armored Cruiser Blücher from World War One, which sunk in the battle of the Dogger Bank 1915. History, development, service, specifications and pictures History SMS Blücher affords a prime example of a misfit warship produced rapidly to meet a… learn more

Coastal submarines UB class

German short-range coastal submarines originally intended to be transported by rail to their area of operations. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. UB class Type: Coastal submarines. History The UB classes were coastal sub­marines which stemmed initially from a… learn more

British Army 1914-18

The British Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. In 1908 Haldane had reorganized the British army, forming the units at home into an Expeditionary Force, six infantry and one cavalry division totaling some 160,000 men, capable… learn more

Vickers Gun in Action

Specially-prepared positions for Vickers machine-gun teams

The British Vickers machine-gun in action during the First World War. to Part I: history, development, service, specifications and pictures of the Vickers Gun. When the first Vickers machine-guns were introduced in 1907, few British army officers knew exactly what… learn more

Russian revolvers and pistols

Russian Nagant revolvers and Tokarev automatic pistols of the First and Second World Wars. History, development, specifications, statistics and pictures. Revolver Model 1895 Nagant Model 1895 Nagant Type: Revolver. Belgian Nagant Revolver The Nagant Model 1895 revolver was originally a… learn more

French Army 1914-18

The French Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization, divisions, tactics, casualties and leaders. French Army The populations of France and the North German Confederation had in 1870 been approximately equal, but by 1914, while the population… learn more

Vickers Gun

Vickers Gun

British Vickers machine-gun from both World Wars. History, development, service, specifications and pictures of the heavy Vickers gun. Vickers Gun Type: heavy machine-gun. History Great Britain was among the first countries where the Maxim machine-gun was introduced after a demonstration… learn more

Losses in World War One

The fallen comrade

Number of losses to soldiers, civilians, ships, by the air war and war costs and damage in the First World War. Until the end of the First World War, the scale of the devastation and loss of human life was… learn more

Treaty of Versailles

sign of the Treaty of Versailles

The dictates of the Allies in the Versailles Peace Treaty. Reparations, Allied dispute, War guilt issue, Hitler’s rising. Here to Part I: Armistice of Compiegne in November 1918. Reparations The idea of ‘reparations for damage done’ after a war was… learn more

Greek Army in World War One

Uniforms Greek Army World War One

The Army of Greece and its uniforms in World War One. In February 1821, the Greeks’ decisive revolt against the Ottoman Empire began and on 3 February 1830 they gained independence. In July 1914 Greece under King Constantine I had… learn more

British Revolvers

British revolvers of both World Wars: Webley .455in, Fosbery, Webley .38in Mk 4, Enfield No.2. History, development, specifications, statistics and pictures. Pistols Webley .455in, 0.38in Mk 4, Fosbery, Enfield No.2 Type: Revolver. Webley .455in revolver The 0.455-inch cartridge used by… learn more

Springfield M1903

3d model of Springfield rifle.

US Rifle cal. 30, Springfield M1903. History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures, and 3D model of the American infantry weapon. Springfield M1903, US rifle cal .30 Type: Infantry rifle. History: Although the M1 Garand was the standard rifle of the… learn more

Armistice November 1918

armistice Compiegne November 1918

The Armistice of Compiegne in November 1918: Wilson’s Fourteen Points, Germany’s allies, secret diplomacy and war propaganda. Wilson’s Fourteen Points As early as January 8, 1918, US President Wilson delivered his famous speech to Congress in which he listed ‘Fourteen… learn more

U.S. Army World War One

group of American soldiers on their arrival in France

U.S. Army and uniforms in World War One. The actual entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917 was indeed of less strategic importance than the jubilant masses in Great Britain and France had imagined. Neither… learn more