World War One


Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences of the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, more than 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Caudron G

French Caudron G series of two-seater reconnaissance bombers of World War One. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Caudron G.III, G.IV and G.VI Type: two-seat reconnaissance bomber and training aircraft. History: The majority of nacelle-and-tailboom aero­planes of 1914-19 had… learn more

Sikorsky IIya Mouromets

crew members of a Sikorsky Ilya Mouromets

Sikorsky Ilya Mouromets, Russian heavy bomber from the First World War and the first four-engined aircraft in history. History, development, deployment, specifications, statistics and pictures. Sikorsky IIya Mouromets Type: four-engine heavy reconnaissance bomber. History The shortage of aircraft engines had… learn more

FT-17

3D model of FT-17

French light infantry tank Renault FT-17 of the First World War. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Renault FT-17 Type: Light Infantry Tank. History: The little Renault FT-17 was without a doubt one of the most successful of… learn more

Battle Results

Results and statistics about 15 battles of World War One. Beginning with the Battles of the Frontiers from August 14-23, 1914 and ending with the Meuse-Argonnes campaign from September 26-November 11, 1918. The following tables provide highly aggregated approximate figures… learn more

Japanese Pistols

pistol Taisho 14 Nambu

Japanese automatic pistols and revolvers from the First and Second World War. History, development, specifications, statistics and pictures. Revolver Meiji 26 During World War One, the Japanese armed forces used two types of handguns: the Type 26 revolver and the… learn more

Albatros B

German two-seat reconnaissance planes Albatros B types of World War One. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Albatros B.I, B.II, B.III Type: Two-seat reconnaissance plane. History: This none armed two-seat Albatros bi­planes which were used in Germany in one… learn more

Airco DH2

Model Airco DH2

British first true single-seat fighting scout Airco de Havilland 2. History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures, and model. Airco DH2 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Now generally recognized as the RFC’s first true fighter, the Airco D.H.2 reached France early… learn more

Mk VIII tank

Tank Mark VIII

Heavy Mk VIII ‘Liberty’ or ‘International’ tank build in U.S. after World War One. History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures, and 3D model. Mk VIII (Liberty or International tank) Type: Heavy Infantry Tank. History: In 1916 General John J Pershing… learn more

Belgian Army 1914-18

Uniforms, strength, organization of the Army of Belgium from 1914 to 1918 in World War One. The Belgian Army in 1914, its changing uniforms until 1918 and casualties. Belgian Army in 1914 Standing in the route of the main German… learn more

Gun 149/35

Italian heavy gun Cannone da 149/35A in service from 1901 to 1943. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Cannone da 149/35A Type: heavy gun. History: The development of a new heavy artillery gun, which could replace the in… learn more

German Fighting Power

German fighting power in World War One. During World War One the German armed forces were mobilizing a total of 11 million men and suffered almost exactly 6 million casualties. The allies offered only against Germany about 28 million men,… learn more

Nieuport 11

French scout and single-seat fighter Nieuport 11 and 16 ‘Bebe’. History, development, service, specifications, statistics and pictures. Nieuport 11, 16 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: The Nieuport 11 found its roots in a tiny, single-seat biplane, operated by an 80… learn more

Browning Automatic Pistols

Browning HP-35

Browning Automatic Pistol Model 1900, 1903, 1910 and Browning HP. History, development, specifications, statistics and pictures. Pistol Automatique Browning The Belgian Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre (FN) was founded in collaboration with the American John M Browning after he left… learn more

Bulgarian Army

The Bulgarian Army in World War One from 14 October 1915 to 30 September 1918. Uniforms, strength, armies, divisions, organization and casualties. Bulgaria gained freedom from Turk control on 13 July 1878. By July 1914 the Kingdom of Bulgaria, ruled… learn more

Italian Army

The Italian Army in World War One. Uniforms, strength, units and corps, organization and casualties from 23 May 1915 to 3 November 1918. Similarly to various major powers, Italy announced conscription within the 1870s, establishing the time of obligatory army… learn more

Battlecruiser Lion

'Lion' class battlecruisers at sea prior to the battle of Jutland

British Battlecruiser class Lion and Princess Royal in action at the Battle of the Dogger Bank. History, development, service, specifications and pictures. History: Embodying all the strengths and weaknesses of Fisher’s battlecruiser concept, Lion was every inch a thoroughbred. Fast… learn more

Fokker Eindecker

3D model of Fokker E.

German Fokker E monoplane from World War One. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3d model. Fokker Eindecker Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Anthony Fokker’s Eindecker (literally ‘one wing’) monoplanes were the man­ifestation of his design philosophy combining maneuverability with… learn more

Sopwith Camel

3d model Sopwith Camel F1

Sopwith Camel – famous British fighter plane of World War One. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3d model. The Sopwith F I Camel, the First World War’s most successful fighter, with 1,294 air­craft downed to its credit. Is generally… learn more

Battle of the Falklands

SMS Scharnhorst entering Valparais

German Armored Cruisers Scharnhorst class from World War One, and the battle of the Falklands (part II). History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3d model. The armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst was the flagship of Graf Spee’s East Asia squadron with… learn more

Flush-decker destroyers

3d model of flush-decker HMS Campbeltown

US Flush-decker destroyer class in the First and Second World War. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3d model. Flush-decker destroyers (6 Caldwell, 110 or 111 Wickes and 155 Clemson class ships). Type: Destroyer. History: The first fifty of these… learn more