World War One

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences as the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro- Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All of the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Easter Rising

The Easter Rising in Ireland on Easter Monday 24 April, 1916. Causes of the Easter Rising The conditions that resulted in the Irish Easter Rising of 1916 are of a powerful com­plexity, historical, cultural, governmental, and maybe most importantly mental.… learn more

F.E.2

British two-seater fighter Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and F.E.2d Type: two-seater fighter (later night-bomber). History: Had it been achievable to have the F.E.2b to come sooner into action, it… learn more

St Chamond assault tank

St Chamond tanks

French Char d’Aussaut St Chamond. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Char d’Aussaut St Chamond Type: Assault tank. History: The introduction of the Schneider tank had by-passed the ordinary French military supply paths, which made upset several of… learn more

Big Bertha

M-Gerät ‘Big Bertha’. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Kurze Marinekanone 14 L/12 (M-Gerät) ‘Big Bertha’ Type: super-heavy howitzer. History: The Schlieffen Plan which was designed to obtain the German defeat of France, by wheeling armies via Belgium to… learn more

Mauser rifle 1898

German army's Gewehr 1898.

German infantry rifle Mauser Gewehr 1898 History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Mauser Gewehr 1898 Type: Infantry Rifle. History: The initial Mauser rifle accepted for German military service was the Mauser Modell 1888. This utilized a Mauser bolt-action which… learn more

Portuguese Army

The Army of Portugal in World War One 1916-1918. Uniforms, strength and organization of the Portuguese Army in Europe and Africa. Portugal joined World War One on the Allied side in March 1916. Prior to being transported to France the… learn more

Martinsyde G.100 Elephant

British long-range escort fighter Martinsyde G.100 and G.102 ‘Elephant’. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Martinsyde G.100 and G.102 Elephant Type: single-seat long-range escort fighter (later ground-attack and bomber aircraft). History: Developed by A. A. Fletcher of Martinsyde Limited… learn more

Schneider Tank

Schneider tank

French Schneider assault tank Char d’Assaut (CA). History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Char d’Assaut Schneider Type: Assault tank. History: The idea of the Char d’Assaut Schneider (or Schneider CA) had been de­veloped under the aegis of General… learn more

Verdun

'fighter of Verdun'

The Battle of Verdun. The situation at the end of 1915 After 1915 deadlock had been come to the length of a static front extending from Switzerland to the Channel. The Germans had been unsuccessful, at the Marne battle, to… learn more

B.E.2

British reconnaissance, bomber, night-fighter and training aircraft Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2. Type: two-seat reconnaissance and bomber aircraft. History: Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2, B.E.2a und B.E.2b The initial B.E.… learn more

Tank Mk I

British heavy Infantry Tank Mark I, first tank in history. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Tank Mk I Type: Heavy Infantry Tank. History: The thought of the armoured ‘landship’ had been quite nicely well-known in fiction prior… learn more

Canon de 75 mle 1897

French field gun Canon de 75 mle 1897 (soixante-quinze). History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. History: Canon de 75 mle 1897 Type: field gun. The demand to becoming probably the most legendary guns in recent history could be… learn more

Caudron G

French Caudron G series of two-seater reconnaissance bombers. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Caudron G.III, G.IV and G.VI Type: two-seat reconnaissance bomber and training aircraft. History: The majority of nacelle-and-tailboom aero­planes of 1914-19 had been pusher bi­planes; the… learn more

FT-17

3D model of FT-17

French light infantry tank Renault FT-17. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Renault FT-17 Type: Light Infantry Tank. History: The little Renault FT-17 was without a doubt one of the most successful of all the World War one… learn more

Battle Results

Results and statistics about 15 battles of World War One. The following tables provide highly aggregated approximate figures for 15 battles of World War One with German participation; ten on the Western Front, and five on the Eastern Front against… learn more

Albatros B

German two-seat reconnaissance planes Albatros B types. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Albatros B.I, B.II, B.III Type: Two-seat reconnaissance plane. History: This none armed two-seat Albatros bi­planes which were used in Germany in one functionality as well as… learn more

Airco DH2

Model Airco DH2

British first true single-seat fighting scout Airco de Havilland 2. Airco DH2 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Now generally recognized as the RFC’s first true fighter, the Airco D.H.2 reached France early in 1916. By that time the Fokker E… learn more

Mk VIII tank

Tank Mark VIII

Heavy Mk VIII ‘Liberty’ or ‘International’ tank. Mk VIII (Liberty or International tank) Type: Heavy Infantry Tank. History: In 1916 General John J Pershing appointed an officer with the planning of a tank unit for the US Army. This officer,… learn more

Belgian Army 1914-18

Uniforms, strength, organization of the Army of Belgium in World War One. Belgian Army in 1914 Standing in the route of the main German push of 1914, Belgium set up a field army of 6 infantry divisions adding up to… learn more

Gun 149/35

Italian heavy gun Cannone da 149/35A. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Cannone da 149/35A Type: heavy gun. History: The development of a new heavy artillery gun, which could replace the in 1882 introduced older model 149/23, began… learn more