World War One

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences as the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro- Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All of the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Belgian Army 1914-18

Uniforms, strength, organization of the Army of Belgium in World War One. Belgian Army in 1914 Standing in the route of the main German push of 1914, Belgium set up a field army of 6 infantry divisions adding up to… learn more

Gun 149/35

Italian heavy gun Cannone da 149/35A. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Cannone da 149/35A Type: heavy gun. History: The development of a new heavy artillery gun, which could replace the in 1882 introduced older model 149/23, began… learn more

German Fighting Power

German fighting power in World War One During World War One the German armed forces were mobilizing a total of 11 million men and suffered almost exactly 6 million casualties. The allies offered only against Germany about 28 million men,… learn more

Nieuport 11

French scout and single-seat fighter Nieuport 11 and 16 ‘Bebe’. Nieuport 11, 16 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: The Nieuport 11 found its roots in a tiny, single-seat biplane, operated by a 80 hp Gnome power plant, de­signed by Gustave… learn more

Bulgarian Army

The Bulgarian Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. Bulgaria gained freedom from Turk control on 13 July 1878. By July 1914 the Kingdom of Bulgaria, ruled by Tsar Ferdinand I., made of around 5,500,000 Bulgarian people along… learn more

Italian Army

The Italian Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. Similarly to various major powers, Italy announced conscription within the 1870s, establishing the time of obligatory army service at 3 years. In several ways the military was the sole… learn more

Battlecruiser Lion

'Lion' class battlecruisers at sea prior to the battle of Jutland

British Battlecruiser class Lion and Princess Royal in action at the Battle of the Dogger Bank. History: Embodying all the strengths and weaknesses of Fisher’s battlecruiser concept, Lion was every inch a thoroughbred. Fast and powerful, but vulnerable to fire… learn more

Fokker Eindecker

3D model of Fokker E.

German Fokker E monoplane Fokker Eindecker Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Anthony Fokker’s Eindecker (literally ‘one wing’) monoplanes were the man­ifestation of his design philosophy combining manoeuvrability with a syn­chronized machine-gun of acceptable reliability. The original M5k prototype was in… learn more

Sopwith Camel

3d model Sopwith Camel F1

Sopwith Camel – British fighter plane The Sopwith F I Camel, the First World War’s most successful fighter, with 1,294 air­craft downed to its credit. Is generally an enlarged and modified Sopwith Pup. It was designed specially for hight perforfance… learn more

Russian Army

The Russian Army in World War One 1914-1917 – uniforms, strength, organization. For Russia, whose population numbered 167,000,000, manpower seemed the least of her problems. Bad roads, scant railways, low industrial capacity, poor standards of education and literacy, and a… learn more

Serbian Army

The Serbian Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Although Russia went to war to rescue Serbia, the Serbian army, under Marshal Putnik, 190,000 men strong, organized in… learn more

Battleships Queen Elizabeth class

British Battleships Queen Elizabeth class History One of the most successful classes of capital ships ever built, the five units of the Queen Elizabeth class were also the first true fast battleships. This re­sulted from the decision to mount 381­-mm… learn more

Austro-Hungarian Army

The Austro-Hungarian Army in the Great War 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. Austria-Hungary had been worsted by the French in 1859, and in 1866 trounced by Prussia. Since then the army had been reformed on the Prussian model, but not… learn more

Armoured Cruiser Blücher

German Armoured Cruiser Blücher History SMS Blücher affords a prime example of a misfit warship produced rapidly to meet a mistakenly perceived threat from a rival power. The British built their first battle-cruisers in great secrecy, referring to them (deliberate­ly… learn more

Coastal submarines UB class

German short-range coastal submarines originally intended to be transported by rail to their area of operations. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. UB class Type: Coastal submarines. History The UB classes were coastal sub­marines which stemmed initially from a… learn more

British Army

The British Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. In 1908 Haldane had reorganized the British army, forming the units at home into an Expeditionary Force, six infantry and one cavalry division totalling some 160,000 men, capable… learn more

French Army

The French Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. French Army The populations of France and the North German Confederation had in 1870 been approximately equal, but by 1914, while the population of the German empire had… learn more

Greek Army in World War One

Uniforms Greek Army World War One

The Army of Greece and uniforms in World War One. In February 1821, the Greeks’ decisive revolt against the Ottoman Empire began and on 3 February 1830 they gained independence. In July 1914 Greece under King Constantine I had a… learn more

U.S. Army World War One

group of American soldiers on their arrival in France

U.S. Army and uniforms in World War One. The actual entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917 was indeed of less strategic importance than the jubilant masses in Great Britain and France had imagined. Neither… learn more

Turkish Army World War One

The Ottoman Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. At the start of November 1914 Ottoman Empire joined World War One versus the Allies. The ramshackle Ottoman empire ended up eroding for 50 years once, during 1908, the… learn more