World War One

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences as the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro- Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All of the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Battle Results

Results and statistics about 15 battles of World War One. The following tables provide highly aggregated approximate figures for 15 battles of World War One with German participation; ten on the Western Front, and five on the Eastern Front against… learn more

Albatros B

German two-seat reconnaissance planes Albatros B types. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Albatros B.I, B.II, B.III Type: Two-seat reconnaissance plane. History: This none armed two-seat Albatros bi­planes which were used in Germany in one functionality as well as… learn more

Airco DH2

Model Airco DH2

British first true single-seat fighting scout Airco de Havilland 2. Airco DH2 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Now generally recognized as the RFC’s first true fighter, the Airco D.H.2 reached France early in 1916. By that time the Fokker E… learn more

Mk VIII tank

Tank Mark VIII

Heavy Mk VIII ‘Liberty’ or ‘International’ tank. Mk VIII (Liberty or International tank) Type: Heavy Infantry Tank. History: In 1916 General John J Pershing appointed an officer with the planning of a tank unit for the US Army. This officer,… learn more

Belgian Army 1914-18

Uniforms, strength, organization of the Army of Belgium in World War One. Belgian Army in 1914 Standing in the route of the main German push of 1914, Belgium set up a field army of 6 infantry divisions adding up to… learn more

Gun 149/35

Italian heavy gun Cannone da 149/35A. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Cannone da 149/35A Type: heavy gun. History: The development of a new heavy artillery gun, which could replace the in 1882 introduced older model 149/23, began… learn more

German Fighting Power

German fighting power in World War One During World War One the German armed forces were mobilizing a total of 11 million men and suffered almost exactly 6 million casualties. The allies offered only against Germany about 28 million men,… learn more

Nieuport 11

French scout and single-seat fighter Nieuport 11 and 16 ‘Bebe’. Nieuport 11, 16 Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: The Nieuport 11 found its roots in a tiny, single-seat biplane, operated by a 80 hp Gnome power plant, de­signed by Gustave… learn more

Bulgarian Army

The Bulgarian Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. Bulgaria gained freedom from Turk control on 13 July 1878. By July 1914 the Kingdom of Bulgaria, ruled by Tsar Ferdinand I., made of around 5,500,000 Bulgarian people along… learn more

Italian Army

The Italian Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. Similarly to various major powers, Italy announced conscription within the 1870s, establishing the time of obligatory army service at 3 years. In several ways the military was the sole… learn more

Battlecruiser Lion

'Lion' class battlecruisers at sea prior to the battle of Jutland

British Battlecruiser class Lion and Princess Royal in action at the Battle of the Dogger Bank. History: Embodying all the strengths and weaknesses of Fisher’s battlecruiser concept, Lion was every inch a thoroughbred. Fast and powerful, but vulnerable to fire… learn more

Fokker Eindecker

3D model of Fokker E.

German Fokker E monoplane from World War One. Fokker Eindecker Type: single-seat fighting scout. History: Anthony Fokker’s Eindecker (literally ‘one wing’) monoplanes were the man­ifestation of his design philosophy combining manoeuvrability with a syn­chronized machine-gun of acceptable reliability. The original… learn more

Sopwith Camel

3d model Sopwith Camel F1

Sopwith Camel – British fighter plane The Sopwith F I Camel, the First World War’s most successful fighter, with 1,294 air­craft downed to its credit. Is generally an enlarged and modified Sopwith Pup. It was designed specially for hight perforfance… learn more

Flush-decker destroyers

3d model of flush-decker HMS Campbeltown

US Flush-decker destroyer class Flush-decker destroyers (6 Caldwell, 110 or 111 Wickes and 155 Clemson class ships). Type: Destroyer. History: The first fifty of these ships were authorised as part of the US Navy’s 1916 programme, which was designed to… learn more

BAR

BAR

BAR – Browning Automatic Rifle, US light machine gun or assault rifle. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D model. Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) Type: heavy automatic rifle or light machine gun. Browning M1918 in World War One In February… learn more

Russian Army

The Russian Army in World War One 1914-1917 – uniforms, strength, organization. For Russia, whose population numbered 167,000,000, manpower seemed the least of her problems. Bad roads, scant railways, low industrial capacity, poor standards of education and literacy, and a… learn more

Serbian Army

The Serbian Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Although Russia went to war to rescue Serbia, the Serbian army, under Marshal Putnik, 190,000 men strong, organized in… learn more

Battleships Queen Elizabeth class

British Battleships Queen Elizabeth class History One of the most successful classes of capital ships ever built, the five units of the Queen Elizabeth class were also the first true fast battleships. This re­sulted from the decision to mount 381­-mm… learn more

Austro-Hungarian Army

The Austro-Hungarian Army in the Great War 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. Austria-Hungary had been worsted by the French in 1859, and in 1866 trounced by Prussia. Since then the army had been reformed on the Prussian model, but not… learn more

Armoured Cruiser Blücher

German Armoured Cruiser Blücher from World War One. History SMS Blücher affords a prime example of a misfit warship produced rapidly to meet a mistakenly perceived threat from a rival power. The British built their first battle-cruisers in great secrecy,… learn more