World War One


Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

THE GREAT WAR

Sarajevo No other political assassination in modern history has had such momentous conse­quences of the shooting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg empire, in Sarajevo, the capital of the tur­bulent provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, more than 100 years ago – on 28th June 1914.
The Sarajevo murder was an incident which, under more normal international circumstances, could not have provoked such historical upheavals.

But in the early summer of 1914 relations between the great European powers were so tense that the killing of the archduke by a Bosnian student, named Gavrilo Princip, led to the outbreak of World War One through a series of quick and irreversible steps – the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, her declaration of war on 28th July, Russian mobilization, Ger­many’s declaration of war on Russia on 1st August, and on France on 3rd August, and Great Britain’s declaration of war against Germany on 4th August.

The great powers had been elaborating plans for mobilizing mass armies ever since the Franco-German war of 1870-71. As usual, men prepared for the last military conflict in­stead of for the next one. The general staffs all assumed that the coming struggle would be decided by the first engagements on the frontiers, as had happened in 1870, and each general staff aimed to get its blow in first. Yet they were all terrified that the other side might beat them to it. Each one of them attributed to others a speed and flexibility which they knew they did not possess themselves. The deterrent of the overwhelming blow put the generals in a panic instead of giving them security. Such is the usual way with deterrents.
The strategies for mobilization were all according to detailed train time-tables, accurately determined through the years. As soon as the alert received, millions of reservists would arrive at their barracks. Thousands of trains would be put together and would pro­ceed every single day to their designated targets. The time-tables were strict and might not be modified without several weeks of planning. Casino Games explained.
Germany and France both had just one strategy for mobilization – both equally moved, needless to say, versus the opponent. Russia and Austria-Hungary got different strategies: the Russian either for general mobilization versus simultaneously against Germany and Austria-Hun­gary or for partial mobilization versus Austria-Hungary only; the Austrians against Serbia, Italy, or Russia. If one of these strategies did start to run, it would make the change to a different strategy im­possible. The time-tables could hardly be modified immediately.
This is the way to one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This scale of human loss had never been seen before – more than 14 million soldiers and civilians were killed, and a further 21 million troops were wounded during the four years of stagnant trench warfare and in failed attacks.
It was also the first time that many of the military technologies we now take for granted were employed, including heavy bombers and tanks. Yet even these were overshadowed by more established weapons such as machine-guns and artillery, the most lethal weapon of all.
The armistice in 1918 also signaled the end of the existing Europe; the conflict had caused the death of three powers: the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian – and saw the appearance of the U.S.A. as a major worldwide power. Nevertheless, the peace negotiations inserted the fundamentals for the outbreak of WW2.
The Diary will become a chronological history – day by day – of the conflict from the opening shots at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the armistice in November 1918. All the major war theaters are covered, as is the fighting in the air and at sea.


Losses in World War One

The fallen comrade

Number of losses to soldiers, civilians, ships, by the air war and war costs and damage in the First World War. Until the end of the First World War, the scale of the devastation and loss of human life was… learn more

Treaty of Versailles

sign of the Treaty of Versailles

The dictates of the Allies in the Versailles Peace Treaty. Reparations, Allied dispute, War guilt issue, Hitler’s rising. Here to Part I: Armistice of Compiegne in November 1918. Reparations The idea of ‘reparations for damage done’ after a war was… learn more

Greek Army in World War One

Uniforms Greek Army World War One

The Army of Greece and its uniforms in World War One. In February 1821, the Greeks’ decisive revolt against the Ottoman Empire began and on 3 February 1830 they gained independence. In July 1914 Greece under King Constantine I had… learn more

British Revolvers

British revolvers of both World Wars: Webley .455in, Fosbery, Webley .38in Mk 4, Enfield No.2. History, development, specifications, statistics and pictures. Pistols Webley .455in, 0.38in Mk 4, Fosbery, Enfield No.2 Type: Revolver. Webley .455in revolver The 0.455-inch cartridge used by… learn more

Springfield M1903

3d model of Springfield rifle.

US Rifle cal. 30, Springfield M1903. History, development, service, specifications, statistics, pictures, and 3D model of the American infantry weapon. Springfield M1903, US rifle cal .30 Type: Infantry rifle. History: Although the M1 Garand was the standard rifle of the… learn more

Armistice November 1918

armistice Compiegne November 1918

The Armistice of Compiegne in November 1918: Wilson’s Fourteen Points, Germany’s allies, secret diplomacy and war propaganda. Wilson’s Fourteen Points As early as January 8, 1918, US President Wilson delivered his famous speech to Congress in which he listed ‘Fourteen… learn more

U.S. Army World War One

group of American soldiers on their arrival in France

U.S. Army and uniforms in World War One. The actual entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917 was indeed of less strategic importance than the jubilant masses in Great Britain and France had imagined. Neither… learn more

Turkish Army World War One

The Ottoman Army in World War One – uniforms, strength, organization. At the start of November 1914 Ottoman Empire joined World War One versus the Allies. The ramshackle Ottoman empire ended up eroding for 50 years once, during 1908, the… learn more

Sarajevo assassination

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The Sarajevo assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914. The murder of an important political figure often had important consequences, but the shooting of the heir of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy in 1914 led to the World War… learn more

WoWs – Battleship Kaiser

battleship 'Kaiser' in WoW

World of Warships: German battleship Kaiser class from World War One. The German battleship of the Kaiser class is the fifth ship in the German research tree (right), which can be reached after the cruisers Hermelin, Dresden, Kolberg and the… learn more

German Army World War One

The Germany Army in World War One 1914-1918 – uniforms, strength, organization. German Army The German empire, announced in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles in 1871, had around 1914 inhabitants of well over 65 millions. On paper, aside from the… learn more

German uniforms World War One

German uniforms World War One

The uniforms of the Germany Army in World War One 1914-1918. back to PART I of Germany Army 1914-1918 At the outbreak of World War One in August 1914, the German Army was uniformly dressed in field-grey uniforms, which had… learn more

Browning machine guns

Browning-M1917

Browning M1917 and M1919 machine guns. History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3d-model. Browning M1917, M1919 Type: heavy machine gun. Browning M1917 John Moses Browning had begun work on his first machine gun in 1889, when American forces were still… learn more

Romanian Army 1916-1918

The Army of Rumania in World War One 1916-1918. Uniforms, strength and organization of the Romanian Army. On August 17, 1916 Romania settled the military alliance with the Allies which had been forced upon her, and after that instantly started… learn more

German Military Passport

German military passport from the Kaiser’s period. Complete German Military Passport from the Kaiser’s period of the Great-grandfather of the author. Military passport of the great-grandfather of the author: carpenter Heinrich Button (mother’s side), born on 30 March 1878 in… learn more

Ariska Rifle Meiji 38

Japanese soldier in the Second World War

Japanese infantry rifle Type 38 Ariska. History, development, service, specifications and pictures. Ariska rifle Type 38 Type: Infantry rifle. History When the Japanese Army, like many others, decided to introduce a magazine rifle, it came to the realization that the… learn more

Colt M1911

Colt M1911 and M1911A1, automatic pistol of the US Army from 1911 to 1985. History, development, specifications, statistics, pictures and 3D model. Pistol automatic .45 (Colt M1911 and M1911A1). Type: Automatic pistol. History The Colt M1911 competes with the Browning… learn more

Battle of the Somme

The battle of the machine-guns on the Somme from July 1 to November 18, 1916. Not any battle in World War One had been as dominated by the machine-gun as the Allied 1916 summer offen­sive, the Battle of the Somme.… learn more

Brusilov Offensive

The Russian Brusilov Offensive in summer 1916: History, preparation and conduct of the most successful Russian offensive in World War One, which probably averted an Allied defeat. Prehistory to Brusilov offensive Following its awesome retreat in fall season 1915 the… learn more

Cruiser Aurora

shot fired from Aurora

Russian Pallada class protected cruisers (Pallada, Diana, Aurora). History, development, service, specifications, pictures and model. Pallada class (Pallada, Diana, Aurora) Type: Protected cruisers. History: The Pallada class were three-funnelled cruisers having a fore­castle deck so far as the mainmast. The… learn more