Mesopotamia: Major Reilly Royal Flying Corps shot down by MG fire and captured near Ctesiphon before he can report crucial Turk reinforcements (51st Division); 4 still surviving aircraft help to cover Townshend’s retreat later to Kut (November 25-30).
Artillery duels in Artois and Champagne.
Serbia: Serbs driven from Novi Pazar. French retreat south of river Crna and prepare for retreat to Salonika (November 22-23). Putnik gives order for retreat into Albania. Serb First Army down to 15,381 rifles on November 20, but morale still good, other units worse off with sickness and desertions.