Although the signing of the Moscow Treaty in March 1940, which ended the Winter War, guaranteed Finland her borders with the Soviet Union, the Finnish Government remained uncertain of Soviet intentions towards the independence of Finland. So when Hitler informed the Finns of his impending invasion of the Soviet Union they readily cooperated with Germany to secure the contested Karelian region and the strategically important centre of Murmansk.
On 10 July 1941 the Finnish Army attacked Soviet troops deployed around Lake Ladoga for the protection of Leningrad. But when they had fulfilled their objective of recovery of territories lost in 1939-40, the Finns halted their advance. On 12 December Mannerheim ordered his men to go over to the defensive, and the Finnish Army played little part in the fighting until the Soviet offensive of 1944. Finnish casualties in this phase of the war amounted to 25,000 killed and more than 50,000 wounded.
Finnish Army Organization
|South-Eastern Army (Karelian isthmus in front of Leningrad)||II Corps (Reserves: 2 Coast Artillery Bde)"||2 Infantry Division||7, 28, 49 Inf., 5 Art., 8 Recce Bde.|
|10 Infantry Division||1, 22, 43 Inf., 9 Art., 12 Recce Bde.|
|15 Infantry Division||15, 36, 57 Inf., 12 Art., 16 Recce Bde.|
|18 Infantry Division||6, 27, 48 Inf., 19 Art., 6 Recce Bde.|
|IV Corps||4 Infantry Division||5, 25, 46 Inf., 1 Art., 9, 14 Recce Bdes.|
|8 Infantry Division||4, 24, 45 Inf., 11 Art.|
|17 Infantry Division||13, 34 Inf., 8 Art., 19 Recce Bde.|
|Karelian Army (east of Lake Ladoga along river Svir)||VI Corps (Reserves: 1 Jager Bde.)||1 Infantry Division||14, 35, 56, 60 Inf., 5 Art., 8 Recce Bde.|
|5 Infantry Division||2, 23, 44 Inf., 3 Art., 4 Recce Bdes.|
|11 Infantry Division||8, 29, 50 Inf., 4 Art., 10 Recce Bde.|
|German 163 Infantry Division|
|VII Corps (Reserves: Cavalry Bde., 2 Jager Bde.)||7 Infantry Division||9, 30, 51 Inf., 2 Art., 15 Recce Bde.|
|19 Infantry Division||16, 37, 58, 61 Inf., 10 Art., 18 Recce Bde.|
|subordinated to German Army Headquarter Norway (v.Falkenhorst), Lapland||III Corps||3 Infantry Division||11, 32, 53 Inf., 16 Art., 5 Recce Bde.|
|subordinated to German XXXVI Corps||6 Infantry Division||12, 33, 54 Inf., 14 Art., 3 Recce Bde.|
|for siege of Hanko||14 Infantry Division||10, 31, 53 Inf., 18 Art., 2 Recce Bde.|
|Army reserve||12 Infantry Division||3, 26, 47, 55 Inf., 7 Art., 1 Recce Bde.|
|new units raised 1943-44||Armoured Division (August 1943)||I, II Tank Bdes., Assault gun Bde., Jager Bde. (2,3,4,5 Bns.), 14 Art Bn., AT Bn.|
|200 Infantry Regiment (February 1944): 3,000 Estonian volunteers, one Swedish volunteer battalion|
On 9 June 1944 the Soviet Army launched its attack on Finland deploying five armies totalling 450,000 men and 10,000 guns. The Finnish Army was caught by surprise, largely because of the complacency of the Finnish High Command which had failed to take the necessary defensive precautions during the preceding years. Indeed, the long period of static positional warfare had undermined the morale of the troops and made the Red Army’s attack all the more successful. The powerful Russian onslaught caused some units to panic and the Finnish Army withdrew towards its own territorial boundaries. After a month’s hard fighting the Soviet advance was held and the front stabilised, but Mannerheim realised that his small forces had no chance against the five armies facing him: on 5 September 1944 there was a cease-fire. Casualties during the whole of World War II were 90,000 killed. German troops evacuated Finland peacefully, apart from an unsuccessful attempt to take the island of Sur Sari.
|Infantry Division||Armoured Division||Cavalry and Jaeger Brigades (elite mobile troops)|
|Total units||16||1||3 (1 Cavalry, 2 Jager)|
|Infantry regiments||3 (Mosin-Nagant M1928 rifles)||1 Jager Bde. with 4 Bns.||4 battalions|
|Total men||14,200||?||c. 5,000-6,000|
|Machine guns||116 (plus 250 Suomi sub-machine guns)||c. 52||c. 52|
|Mortars||18 (81mm)||c. 8||c. 8|
|Howitzers and Field guns||36||c. 12||?|
|Anti-tank guns||c. 10||c. 12||?|
|Tanks||–||c.225 (150 tanks- mainly captured T26 and c. 75 StuGIII and captured BT-42 assault guns)||captured T26, T-37 and T-38 (strength of total 3 battalions)|
|Vehicles||?||Jaeger Bde mounted on lorries and bicycles||cavalry in June 1941 in process of motorization and in winter in action as ski troops, Jaeger mounted on lorries and bicycles|
The inadequate Finnish artillery had been overhauled so that the Army was supported by modern field pieces adequately supplied with munitions. Despite these improvements, however, the Finnish Army was still basically an infantry army and was woefully lacking in the support services (especially radio communications) that were commonplace in most modern armies. The Army compensated for these deficiencies by the overall quality of its officers and men, although the war was to prove that Fins fought better when defending their homeland than in initiating offensive operations.
The Army still suffered from two critical shortages: too few aircraft to protect the ground forces and inadequate anti-tank weapons to use against the well-armoured Russian T-34 and KV tank . The Army of 1944 was much as it had been in 1941 – well-trained and led but lacking in sufficient modern equipment.
Finnish Air ForceThe Finnish Air Force had put up a stiff resistance to the numerically stronger Red Air Force during the Winter War (November 1939 – March 1940) and in so doing had gained invaluable experience. Although small, with about 222 front-line aircraft (other sources are speaking about 307) in June 1941, the Finnish Air Force was a useful addition to German air strength on the northern sector of the Eastern Front.
The Air Force was part of the Army but commanded by the Chief of Flying Troops. It was organised in five flying regiments and a number of independent units. Anti-aircraft artillery which in 1939 had been about 192 anti-aircraft guns of various calibres, had increased to nearly 700 by June 1941.
During the Continuation War the Finns split their units into smaller flights of about ten aircraft which could be deployed nearer the front and in the vicinity of the sector where they were required.
By spring 1944, the Air Force had about 223 fighters and 106 bombers of various types, many old-fashioned, but at least four flights flew Me 109G s.
Following the September 1944 armistice with the Allies the Finnish Air Force was used against its former ally in Finland and northern Norway.
During the Continuation War the Finnish Air Force and anti-aircraft artillery claimed 2,674 enemy aircraft destroyed. Losses were 366 combat aircraft and 361 men.
Finnish NavyDuring the Continuation War the Finnish Navy was reactivated and equipped with vessels left by the retreating Red Army. Finland possessed a Minister of Defence and a C-in-C Naval Forces, MajorGeneral V.L.R. Valve. The Coastal Fleet, which was organised in flotillas and divisions, was commanded by a seagoing flag-officer, Commodore E. A. Rahola; personnel totalled 4,500.
From June 1941 onwards, when Finland fought alongside Germany, Finnish naval forces contributed one large coastal defence vessel and around 30 gun-boats, minesweepers and motor torpedo-boats to the Axis naval force in the Baltic. There were also an additional 432 vessels comprising the Finnish Mercantile Marine.
Throughout the Continuation War the tiny Finnish Navy operated in conjunction with German and Finnish land forces, rather than as an independent sea-going force. Its principal tasks were minelaying, transportation and evacuation of friendly troops, and attempts to cut enemy coastal lines of communication and supply.
The Lake Ladoga Flotilla was also reactivated in 1941 and equipped with 41 craft seized from the Red forces. Other inland flotillas were formed on Lake Segozero (one tug), Payazero (two tugs and motor boats) and Onega (130 vessels) . All were later abandoned during the subsequent retreat.
Finnish losses in the Continuation War were two minelayers, 16 minesweepers, one yacht, two motor torpedo-boats and various other small vessels. At the end of the war the Soviet government seized the one remaining armoured coastal defence ship and five submarines.