Year 1945


The last year of the war: 1945 in WW2.

The situation at the beginning of 1945

The Allies at the outset of 1945 thought to collapse Germany that year. It had been their anticipation that the Wehrmacht would carry on and struggle ferociously on the defensive, particularly since it was the German homeland which was becoming invaded, but there was clearly belief in success.

The Allied air forces dominated the skies over all the fronts; and although sometimes the Luftwaffe could nevertheless muster significant figures, the Allies drastically outnumbered them, had better experienced plus more skilled aviators, and could, when it came to it, replace losses a lot more simply than the Luftwaffe.
By now, additionally, the bombing strikes on Germany’s synthetic oil plants as well as the conquest of the Ploesti oil fields by the Soviets had so diminished the fuel accessible to the Luftwaffe that lots of its aircraft purely couldn’t be used.

The Kriegsmarine was nevertheless planning to come back to the Battle of the Atlantic using modern U-boats Type XXI which could go at high-speed submerged; however even if these fresh types, being supplied and experimented with during the cold months, ever could be put into operational service, they would be blind without air recon – of which there was not the least chance.
The U-boats in real service, those of the old Type VIIs but prepared by a snorkel so that the batteries could be charged up again without the necessity for complete surfacing, were now having little bit of results.

A V-1 in flight.

A V-1 in flight.

But the key question during the last months of war in Europe wasn’t what the Luftwaffe or Kriegsmarine could do but whether or not the German home front would continue to be properly supporting the Wehrmacht as it battled in the east, south and west.
In spite of the extensive casualties of the summer and fall 1944 and in spite of the effect of the more and more serious Allied bombing attacks, the home front performed. There had been an increase of spirits once the first reports of success in the Battle of the Bulge arrived, however that soon disappeared. There were nevertheless hopes for different secret weapons, considering that the V-2 and V-1 had undoubtedly not really turned the trend, however other variables assisted to hold the system together.

Undoubtedly a significant component in the cohesion of Nazi Germany had been the triumph of Hitler and his followers over the inner opposition on and after July 1944. The achievement of the Gestapo e in ferreting out resistance members together with the escalating terror in Germany and in the Wehrmacht seemed to assist all to go together or at a minimum keep their complaints privately.

Fightings in Hungary

Before the fresh huge Red Army attacks in Poland started in January 1945, the circumstance in Hungary had been changing steadily nevertheless slowly favoring the Soviets. The capital of Budapest had been surrounded on December 26 after Hitler declined again authorization for the German troops in order to retreat soon enough. The big urban center was currently besieged, nevertheless the Russians stopped when confronted with Hungarian and German increasing opposition and the fatigue of its own attacking strength on December 28, 1944.
The Germans prepared an important relief operation, to some extent for the political purpose to keep the Hungarians in line of smashing the siege and to some extent in order of shielding the Hungarian oil fields, which were mainly crucial for the German war effort following the loss of the Ploesti oil fields in Rumania along with the success of the Allied bombing offensive on the synthetic oil industry at home.
Right here the Wehrmacht created its final huge operation of WW2. During Wintertime offensives in the East. Throughout January, a number of German assaults pushed in the direction of Budapest, however, as in the scenario of the attempted relief of Stalingrad 2 years ago, didn’t break through and arrive at the isolated troops.

The Russian main offensive

counter-strike with Tiger tanks

German counter-strike with Tiger tanks in East Prussia.

The initial part of the Russian strategy to finish the European conflict in 45 days was successful totally; the other failed. Initially planned for about January 15 to 20, 1945 the attacks was moved up 7 days, to some extent as a result of demands from Britain and US to decrease pressure in the Battle of the Bulge, following months of silent on the primary sector of the front in the East had allowed the Germans to focus somewhere else.

The earlier strike had the benefit, however, of stunning most of the German HQs, which in fact had estimated the Russians to wait for more desirable climatic conditions. The reserves of the Wehrmacht had mainly been shipped to Hungary; on the most important front virtually almost everything the Germans deployed was within Russian artillery range.
The huge attacks, started on January 12, 13, and 14 in the Battle of the Vistula, truly practically destroyed the German troops in front of them, pushed away both the remnants of the German front units along with what handful of reserves had been deployed behind the German lines, and had broken into the open by January 17.
Elements of the German front had been encircled as Russian armored units cut in to their rear while in other places the unorganized remnants of German divisions – preceded by rear area administrations and services – flee back toward the borders of Germany. When the weather conditions cleared, the Russian planes seized powerful control of the skies.

The Russian triumph had been of tremendous size, and it also created even more dilemma for the reason that Soviets increased in self-belief as well as spirits as the Germans, pursued over locations previously rarely dealt with by warfare and actually objective of numerous evacuated from the Western side due to air strikes there, fled just before what seemed more and more just like an unbeatable onrush.

The Allied advance in the West

Just as the Russian attacks had been coming to a standstill on the river Oder, and the Wehrmacht had been being prepared for yet another counter-attack in Hungary, the Allies in the West, having annihilated the bulge which result from the German December operation, had been on the point of strike once again.
More than 1.5 million US GI’s; 400,Thousand Canadian and Canadian soldiers, as well as greater than 100,Thousand French troops were deployed for the strike on Germany itself.

railway bridge at Remagen

The intact taken railway bridge at Remagen.

On February 23 General Hodges’s 1st US Army assaulted southwestward and pressed in the direction of Cologne. They quickly pushed into the outskirts of the huge city and going south into the rear of German units still on the Belgian-German border. While they arrived at the peak looking over the railway bridge at Remagen on March 7, the US 9th Armored Division advance guards discovered the bridge nevertheless existing and hurried in while the Germans anxiously attempted to blow it up.

Strange thing is that, the October 1944 blast which result from a us air strike, which had destroyed the suspension bridge into the river Rhine, had inspired the Germans to rewire the explosives on the other bridges lest the same incident befall them; and the increased complexity of blowing up the re-wired bridge now kept them from wrecking the Remagen bridge in the dash of the US assault.


With the permission of Eisenhower and Bradley, Hodges immediately sent US troops across the Rhine, acquired a perimeter on the opposite side versus desperate German attacking attempts, and had alternative pontoon bridges ready the moment German air strikes and artillery guns caused the structure, destabilized by the previous destruction work, to break down. The final obstacle into Germany from the west had been cracked.

Prior to the Ruhr had been encircled, Hitler had given rigid instructions that all transportation, industrial, along with other facilities within Germany must be demolished unless they fall into Allied hands. These kinds of instructions had routinely followed all other retreats pressured on the Germans, and often German commanders had carried them out ruthlessly to the most effective degree possible, without any consideration to the future survival of inhabitants who had previously suffered significantly.

In special situations there had been unwillingness to abandon only ruins – Florence and Paris being cases – but in general, the tempo of several German retreats instead of humanitarian inhibitions had resulted in some structures, facilities, and supplies to fall into Allied hands not wrecked.

That attitude began to alter after the battling transferred inside Germany. Speer started to foul up the sabotage instructions, and lots of German commanders submitted instead of carried out the orders to eliminate whatever might assistance existence in area captured by the Allies.

As Allied troops advanced quickly, they sometimes dealt with circumstances where the local German population made an effort to discourage the army from defending a specific village in order to keep it from being ruined. Soldiers, for apparent reasons, don’t want to be killed, however they especially don’t want to be the last one killed in a war.
A common routine, consequently, was that when US soldiers reached a truly defended place of opposition, it would just draw back somewhat, demand the air force and artillery to pound it to pieces, and then went on.
Many Germans, at this point losing trust in the chance of triumph or even stalemate, chosen over save their towns the destiny which the war Germany started had coming to numerous other villages. The white flags of surrender came out more and more frequently even as in some spots fierce opposition even now flared up.

Battle for Berlin

Within the first 14 days of April, while the Third Ukrainian Front had been advancing massive into Austria, capturing Vienna by April 3, the enormous arrangements for the primary attack proceeded to go ahead, substantially assisted similar to earlier this sort of organized offensives by the 1000s of vehicles which the America had shipped under Lend-Lease. With some 2 . 5 million troops deployed, the attack opened on April 16. Stalin had advised his generals he wished it carried out in 12 to 15 days, and at massive charge in deaths these people presented mainly what he had requested.

Even though Zhukov’s 1st Belorussian Front began with bridgeheads across the Oder river, its first assaults, started at night with searchlights expected to blind the Germans, hardly ever forced the defenders back frontal. For 3 days the attacking units piled up against the defenses. Pushed ahead by Zhukov at Stalin’s insistence, the Russians ground ahead. As guns donned down the Germans, Russian troops broke into and through the frontline of Army Group Vistula toward and north of Berlin.
There have been extremely serious casualties on both sides, and numerous Russian tanks were knocked-out, many by hand-held Panzerfaust anti-tank rockets used by Hitler Youth boys; but the overwhelming strength of the offensive continually forced all before it away.

Katyusha bombards Berlin

Russian Katyusha BM-13N rocket-launcher bombards Berlin.

The advancing Red Army were getting into Berlin from east, south and north even as the spearheads of Zhukov’s and Konev’s fronts reached each other west of the German capital on April 25, within the same day Konev’s soldiers came in touching US soldiers. Berlinl was totally encircled and at an occasion when the primary defense troops, the 9th Army, had itself been trapped in an individual ‘pocket’ by the Russians.
Hitler’s paranoid attempts to have Berlin relieved had no significant impact on the battle. In hammer blows from all sides, Russian divisions struggling their approach into the center, suffering huge casualties but continue to advance however.
Hitler had chosen to remain in Berlin and commit suicide there if the relief strategies didn’t perform. And this was the way it happened.

German surrender

 surrender document

Last page of the surrender document.

When Doenitz took control of the urgent situation which Hitler left at the start of May 1945, nevertheless, he immediately understood that the war was definitively lost. He wanted to close it in such a way as to save as many as possible of the troops of the Eastern Front from becoming PoWs of the Russians as well as allow as many as possible of the civilians to flee west too.

The surrender was finally autographed in 2 acts, the first in Reims on May 7 and once more in Berlin on May 8.


Diary April 6, 1945

Kamikaze attack on Missouri

Diary for Friday, April 6, 1945: Sea War Pacific – Operation Kikusui (‘Floating Chrysanthemum’): first of 10 massed Kamikaze attacks on US invasion fleet off Okinawa (April 6-7 to June 21-22). Russian Front Russians enter suburbs of Vienna and launch… learn more

Diary April 5, 1945

German soldiers marching into captivity

Diary for Thursday, April 5, 1945: Western Front Allied forces cross river Weser. 18 US divisions begin clearance of Ruhr Pocket. Okinawa US forces, pushing south, encounter first line of Japanese defenses. Home Fronts Japan: Koiso Cabinet falls; Admiral Suzuki… learn more

Diary April 4, 1945

Russian artillery in the Carpathian Mountains

Diary for Wednesday, April 4, 1945: Russian Front Slovakia: Bratislava captured by Malinovsky. Western Front Allied forces at Kassel, Gotha, Karlsruhe and Aschaffenburg. learn more

Diary April 3, 1945

German anti-tank in action

Diary for Tuesday, April 3, 1945: Russian Front Austria: Tolbukhin captures Wiener Neustadt. Okinawa US Artillery spotter planes begin operating from Kadena airfield. Air War Germany: RAF bombers attacking Nordhausen. learn more

Diary April 2, 1945

captured Me 262 fighter-bomber

Diary for Monday, April 2, 1945: Western Front Montgomery’s forces capture Rheine Me 262 jet fighter-bomber base and Münster. learn more

Diary April 1, 1945

Ship fires rockets on Okinawa

Diary for Sunday, April 1, 1945: Sea War Pacific: US 10th ARMY LANDS ON OKINAWA (Operation Glacier); captures Kadena and Yontan airfields­. Russian Front Russians take Sopron, southeast of Vienna. Koniev captures fortress of Glogow on the Oder. Western Front… learn more

Diary March 31, 1945

Tunisian troops of the French First Army

Diary for Saturday, March 31, 1945: Western Front French start crossing the Rhine near Speyer. Russian Front Russians take Ratibor on Upper Oder. Sea War Merchant shipping losses in March 1945: 27 Allied ships with 111,204 tons in the Atlantic,… learn more

Diary March 30, 1945

Russian tanks cross the Hungarian-Austrian border.

Diary for Friday, March 30, 1945: Russian Front Danzig stormed by Rokossovksy’s 2nd Belorussian Front. Tolbukhin enters Austria. Air War Germany: 345 bombers of 8th USAAF attacking Wilhelmshaven, Hamburg and Bremen (2,849 t of bombs), sinking cruiser Köln, 14 U-boats… learn more

Diary March 29, 1945

B-25 Mitchells bomb a Japanese escort

Diary for Thursday, March 29, 1940: Western Front Tanks of 21st Army Group break out of Wesel bridgehead. US 7th Army captures Mannheim and Heidelberg. Air War Britain: 2,419th (and last) V-1 reaches Greater London. V-Weapon Casualties in UK: learn more

Diary March 28, 1945

Recovery of V-2 victims

Diary for Wednesday, March 28, 1945: Russian Front Poland: Rokossovsky captures Gdynia. Hungary: Malinovsky takes Gyor. Guderian replaced by Krebs as COS after row with Hitler. learn more

Diary March 27, 1945

M7 105mm HMC in Limburg

Diary for Tuesday, March 27, 1945: Western Front Americans reach Lim­burg. Russian Front Poland: Russians launch final attacks on Danzig and Gdynia. Sea War Baltic: 3 German E-boats attack 9 Russian ‘torpedo cutters’ (MTBs); 3 of latter sunk. Air War… learn more

Diary March 26, 1945

Rocket barrage on Japanese positions

Diary for Monday, March 26, 1945: Sea War Pacific: British Pacific Fleet (TF 57) launches first of many air strikes against airfields on Sakishima Gunto Islands between Okinawa and Formosa. Indian Ocean: British destroyers and B-24 Liberator bombers annihilate Japanese… learn more

Diary March 25, 1945

155mm M12 GMC near Hanau

Diary for Sunday, March 25, 1945: Western Front Montgomery’s 4 bridge­heads over the Rhine merge into 48­-km-wide salient. 3rd US Army captures Darmstadt and Hanau. Russian Front Hungary: Malinovsky breaks through west of Budapest, crossing river Hron and capturing Esztergom.… learn more

Diary March 24, 1945

Advancing Russian troops in Poland in March 1945

Diary for Saturday, March 24, 1945: Russian Front Poland: Russians capture Zoppot, between Danzig and Gdynia. Hungary: Tolbukhin’s forces sweep forward to Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg), 58 km southwest of Buda­pest. Western Front British Commandos occupy Wesel. Montgomery’s forces link up with… learn more

Diary March 23, 1945

US paratroopers Rhine crossing

Diary for Friday, March 23, 1945: Western Front MONTGOMERY’S 21st ARMY GROUP CROSSES THE RHINE AT WESEL (Operation Plunder): attack takes place in bright moonlight under cover of dense smoke screen and shattering artillery bombardment. Mont­gomery issues Order of the… learn more

Diary March 22, 1945

US troops crossing the Rhine

Diary for Thursday, March 22, 1945: Western Front US 3rd Army crosses the Rhine, west of Mainz. Russian Front In Silesia, Konev‘s forces break through west and south of Oppeln. Neutrals Spain: Don Juan, the Preten­der, demands resignation of Franco… learn more

Diary March 21, 1945

Me 262 A-1a of KG (Jagd) 54

Diary for Wednesday, March 21, 1945: Air War Europe: Mosquito bombers destroy Gestapo HQ in Copenhagen; bombs acci­dentally dropped on nearby school kill 86 pupils and 17 teachers. 8th USAAF attacks Me 262 bases in Western Germany. Western Front Ludwigshafen… learn more

Diary March 20, 1945

infantry guarding a bridge

Diary for Tuesday, March 20, 1945: Russian Front Russians eliminate German bridgehead on lower Oder at Altdamm. Burma BRITISH CAPTURE MAN­DALAY. Home Fronts Britain: Death of Lord Alfred Douglas, poet and much-maligned friend of Oscar Wilde; aged 75. learn more

Diary March 19, 1945

USS Franklin

Diary for Monday, March 19, 1945: Air War Pacific: Carriers Wasp and Franklin severely damaged by Japanese bombers (825 killed). Sea War U-boats withdrawn from Eastern Baltic. Home Fronts Germany: Hitler orders total scorched earth policy. learn more

Diary March 18, 1945

US artillery bombarding German positions

Diary for Sunday, March 18, 1945: Western Front US tanks enter Bad Kreuznach and Bingen. Air War Germany: 1,221 US bombers (25 lost) and 700 escorts (5 lost) drop 4,000 t. bombs on Berlin despite heavy flak and numerous Me… learn more